The sulfhydryl enzyme malate synthase was inactivated by X-irradiation in air-saturated aqueous solution, in the absence or presence of a variety of additives (thiols, antioxienzymes, typical radical scavengers, inorganic salts, buffer components, substrates, products, analogues). Radiation-induced changes of enzymic activity were registered immediately after stop of irradiation and in the post-irradiation period. Repair experiments were initiated by postirradiation addition of dithiothreitol. Additionally, post-irradiation inactivation was modulated by some further additives. Probing the extent of primary and post-irradiation inactivation and repair was accomplished effectively by screening experiments on the microlevel, and by derivation of normalized efficiency parameters which allowed quick comparisons of the various additives with respect to their protective and repair-promotive efficiencies. Correlations between the efficiency parameters were studied by means of binary and ternary diagrams. Most of the substances added before irradiation were found to protect the enzyme against primary and post-irradiation inactivation and to increase the reparability of the enzyme by dithiothreitol, the extent of the effects depending on the nature (and concentration) of the additives used. Our results indicate that both specific protection (by substrates, products, analogues, and by sulfhydryl agents) and scavenging are responsible for the radioprotective efficiencies of the additives.