Phytochemical investigation of Cassia petersiana Bolle leaves afforded four new compounds, including two chromone derivatives, 7-acetonyl-5-hydroxy-2-methylchromone (petersinone 1, 1) and 7-(propan-2ʹ-ol-1ʹ-yl)-5-hydroxy-2-methylchromone (petersinone 2, 2), two benzoic acid derivatives, 5-methyl-3-(propan-2ʹ-on-1ʹ-yl) benzoic acid (petersinone 3, 3) and 5-(methoxymethyl)-3-(propan-2ʹ-ol-1ʹ-yl) benzoic acid (petersinone 4, 4), and glyceryl- 1-tetracosanoate (6), in addition to the known compound sistosterol-3-β-ᴅ-glycoside (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, MS and IR. Compounds 1, 2, 5 and 6 were tested for antioxidant, anti-cancer and immunostimulatory properties. The biological investigations indicated that compound 6, among others, possessed the highest anti-cancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma, immunoproliferative activity via induction of T-lymphocytes and macrophage proliferation, anti-inflammatory activity as indicated by NO inhibition, and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals. Moreover, compound 5 was the most effective cytotoxic compound against breast carcinoma and stimulated a consistent immunoproliferative effect on lymphocytes and macrophages combined with strong NO inhibitory activity, while compound 1 was promising as immunoproliferative agent and may act as anti-inflammatory agent as a consequence of its NO inhibitory activity.