The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of extracts and pure Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon) metabolites on the antimonoamine oxidase and anticholinesterase activities. The compounds were characterized as stigmasterol (1) , herniarin (2) , (2E,4E)- 1-(piperidin-1-yl)undeca-2,4-diene-8,10-diyn-1-one (3) , (2E,4E)- N-isobutylundeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynamide (4), 3,4-dehydroherniarin (5) and skimmin (6) by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, 1D and 2D NMR methods. The compounds 5 and 6 were isolated from tarragon for the first time. The extracts and pure compounds have inhibitory effects on the human monoamine oxidase ( h MAO) A and B enzymes, whereas they did not exhibit any anticholinesterase activities. Among the tarragon compounds, only 2 and 6 compounds showed the inhibitory effects against h MAO A (IC 50 = 51.76 and 73.47 μM, respectively) and h MAO B (IC 50 = 0.84 and 1.63 mM, respectively). In the study, herniarin content in the extracts was also analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and it was found that there was a relationship between the inhibition effects of the extracts and their herniarin content.