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Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Lewalski, Barbara Kiefer, 1931- Protestant poetics and the seventeenth-century religious lyric. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. English poetry—17th century—History and criticism. 2. Christian poetry, English—History and criticism. 3. Protestantism in literature. 4. Reformation—England. I. Title. PR545.R4L48 82i'.4'o93i 78-70305 ISBN 0-691-06395-8 ISBN 0-691-01415-9 (pbk.)


0-691-06759-7 (alk. paper) i. Milton, John, 1608-1674. Paradise lost. 2. Milton, John, 1608-1674. Paradise regained. 3. Epic poetry, English—History and criticism. 4. Christian poetry, English—History and criticism. 5. Bible. O.T. Psalms—Criticism, interpretation, etc. 6. Bible in literature. I. Title. PR3562.R27 1989 821'.4—dci9 88-34383 CIP This book has been composed in Linotron Bembo Clothbound editions of Princeton University Press books are printed on acid-free paper, and binding materials are chosen for strength and durability. Paperbacks

, Bonner Beiblatt zur Anglistik 24, 1908. C. W . Kennedy, Early English Christian Poetry, New York, 1952. C. W . Kennedy, The Earliest English Poetry, New York, 1943. Neil Ker (Review of Facsimile), Medium Aevum 2 (1933)j 224-231. F. Klaeber (Review of Cook), JEGP 4 (1902), 101-112. Sherman Kuhn, " A Damaged Passage in the Exeter Book," J E G P 50 ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 491-493. H. Leiding, Die Sfrache der Cynewulfschen Dichtungen, Got- tingen, 1887. F. J. Mather, "The Cynewulf Question from a metrical point of view," M L N 7 (1892), 193-213. A. A. May, " A Source


Studies 446 1. JEROME, 446. - 2. CASSIODORUS, 448. - 3. ISIDORE, 450. - 4· ALDHELM, 457· - 5· EARLY CHRISTIAN POETRY, 458. - 6. NOTKER BALBULUS, 463. - 7. AIMERIC, 464. - 8. LIT- ERARY STUDIES IN THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CEN- TURIES, 465 VII: The Mode of Existence of the Medieval Poet 468 VIII: The Poet's Divine Frenzy 474 IX: Poetry as Perpetuation 476 x: Poetry as Entertainment 478 XI: Poetry and Scholasticism 480 XII: The Poet's Pride 485 CONTENTS XIII: Brevity as an Ideal of Style XIV: Etymology as a Category of Thought xv: Numerical Composition XVI

a mere pictura of something which never happened. The word pictura itself is used by Hugh of St. Victor in the Didascalicon. Here poems are classified along with pagan philosophical writings as "appendicia artium." These writ­ ings are not truly philosophical in themselves, but they may prepare the way toward philosophy. It is clear that Hugh is writing of pagan poetry, but the conception of the pictura applies to Christian poetry as well: huiusmodi sunt omnia poetarum carmina, ut sunt tragoediae, co- moediae, satirae, heroica quoque et lyrica, et iambica

Empire in the fifth century. For internal trans­ formation of the Roman aristocracy, see especially Herbert Bloch, "The Pagan Revival in the West at the End of the Fourth Century," in Momigliano (cited n. 4), pp. 193-218. CRITICAL INTRODUCTION historical considerations. Granted that Prudentius' formal classicism is atypical, a transitory phenomenon in the tradi­ tion of Early Christian poetry, it can be explained as result­ ing not only from a personal engagement with literary ancestors, but from a timely responsiveness to his audience's desperate need for

clerk have read these lines? He could hardly trans- late semipaganus otherwise than as "only half a pagan." So-he must have thought to himself-this Persius, this contemporary of Paul and the half- Christian Seneca, must have abjured his erroneous faith in the pagan gods! That was why he would have no more converse with the Muses! In addition to invoking the Muses, antique poetry also invoked Zeus.s Christian poetry was able to establish contact here too: Paradise was equated with Olympus, God with Jupiter (Dante still writes: "sommo Giove"). Finally late

the power of the oracle- myth itself, and of the cultural and imaginative work that it has been able to do in post- classical times’.16 That story, left still untold by Connor, will be attempted here. To do it justice, we cannot restrict ourselves to books written specifically on the subject, for the theme appears in all manner of contexts and genres, many unpre- dictable. We shall glance, for example, at the humanist reconstruction of pagan religion, the witchcraft debates of the later Renaissance, the tropes of Christian poetry, the controversies about

in the Cloisters, New College, Oxford, 1950 David Cecil • 275 truly blossomed only when he left Eton and came to Oxford, and entered Christ Church. The strongest cultural influence on him at Eton was probably Aldous Huxley, who was a temporary master there during the First World War, and opened his eyes to realms of poetry which were new to him; his love of English poetry, particularly Christian poetry, stayed with him for the rest of his life. At Oxford Cecil became deeply interested in English history, particularly the Stuarts and the rise of the Tory