Skip to content

Manuscript Submission Guidelines for De Gruyter

Submitting your manuscript is a big step towards getting your book published. To give your book the best chances of success, read our guide on how to prepare a manuscript for submission and publishing in the correct manuscript format.

Drafting Manuscripts

When preparing your draft manuscript, there are many recommended guidelines to follow to ensure your book easily makes it through to publication. Please note that additional instructions that supplement these general manuscript guidelines may apply, depending on the specific subject area.

1. General

Before you begin, please note the difference between manuscripts that will be professionally typeset and a camera-ready copy (CRC):

  • A manuscript that will be typeset must be prepared according to the instructions we’ve provided here. In order to easily create a document following our requirements, we provide a word template1. After your manuscript has been accepted for publication, it will be professionally typeset as a printer copy.

  • Camera-Ready Copy (CRC) provides the opportunity to create a printer’s copy yourself. When preparing a CRC, technical and formal aspects must be considered. You will receive specific instructions and practical guidance (i.e., templates, fonts) from your contact person after the conclusion of the contract.

2. Author Guidelines for Manuscript Submission

When preparing an online manuscript submission, please send us editable word processing files (e.g., .doc, .docx, .odt) as well as PDF versions of the documents as a reference (for the clear display of special characters/non-latin fonts). If your manuscript contains figures, graphics, or large tables, please submit them as separate files rather than including them in the document.

We also encourage all book authors to provide an ORCID ID when submitting their manuscript for publication. ORCID is a free, not-for-profit service offering each researcher a unique digital identifier. Authors who don’t have an ORCID ID can register for one at Contact our team at De Gruyter for more information and assistance with this.

2.1 File Formats

All accepted file formats are listed in the following table.

Table 1. Accepted file formats


File format


Open files


Reference files



Open files


Reference files



Halftone image/Pixel graphic


Line drawing, vector graphic


Digital camera


  • Figures and graphics should be a minimum of 300 dpi but preferably 600 dpi.

  • Editable formats are preferred as they are easier to process during typesetting.

  • Processing of these figures and graphics generated by custom written applications is not possible without the respective applications themselves.

2.2 File Naming Conventions

For the further processing of your manuscript within the publishing house, we kindly request that you use file names for files, images, tables, etc., that reflect their content-related order within your publication.

Here are the criteria you should keep in mind for file naming:

  • clear and precise assignment

  • file names should not be too long

  • no special characters or umlauts

  • use a numbering system with leading zeros for continuous documents such as contributions, for example, 01, 02 ...09, 10 or 001 ... 020... 130

The following examples demonstrate a possible file name structure.

Example for monographs:

[name author/editor_short-title-of-the-chapter_date]


Example for contributions:

[continuous-document-number_name Author(s)/editors_contribution-title_date]


Example for figures/tables:

[chapter-number/name-or-chapter-number_fig/tab-number_name Author(s)/editors]

03_fig2_Gabriel-Hogrebe 01_ fig1.5_Meier chapter5_tab5.2_Schmidt

3. Obtaining Usage Rights

Please note that it is the author's/editor’s responsibility to obtain usage rights to third-party materials that are owned by others, such as images, figures, maps or tables. Once permissions have been obtained, the author/editor should forward them to the publisher, including any special provisions regarding credit lines.

The publisher will not assume any liability for copyright infringement by authors.

4. Software

There are primarily two ways to create your manuscript using software: word processing software and LaTeX.

4.1 Word Processing Software

You should draft your manuscript using a standard word processing application (i.e., MS Word or Open Office). If you use another application, please contact us in advance and/or submit your manuscript in the Rich Text Format (.rtf).

If your manuscript makes use of non-latin fonts or special characters (e.g., Hebrew, Greek or Coptic), please use a Unicode font and tell us which one you have used.

4.2 LaTeX

If you use LaTex, please submit your LaTex files as well as a reference PDF of the final version. Be sure to send us all .sty files and macros you have used. Please check the preamble before submitting your files and delete references to packages used and/or commentary that is not relevant to the manuscript.

Please refrain from using images generated by LaTeX (i.e., using packages such as pict2e, MetaPost, PSTricks, or tikZ). The images should be submitted in .eps format.

5. Typeface, Emphasis, and Punctuation

Italics should be used for:

  • words, phrases, and sentences treated as linguistic examples

  • foreign-language expressions

  • titles of books, published documents, newspapers, and periodicals

Italics may also be used to:

  • draw attention to significant terms (at first mention only)

  • emphasise a word or phrase in a quotation, if indicated accordingly. For example, quote “[emphasis mine]”

Boldface type should be used sparingly, but it may be used to draw attention to a particular linguistic feature in numbered examples (not in running text).

Single quotation marks should be used only for the translation of non-English words. For example, cogito ‘I think’.

Double quotation marks should be used in all other cases. For example, for:

  • direct quotations in running text

  • “qualified” words or phrases

Brackets within parentheses should be square brackets.

Full stops should be placed last, following any other punctuation, but before footnote numbers. For example:

  • ... word).

  • “... word”.

  • ...word.7 (but ... word7 ... . within a sentence).

Parenthetical dashes are longer than hyphens. If you are unable to use dashes, please use two hyphens.

An en-dash “–” is used to indicate continuing or inclusive numbers, such as “1965–1966” or pages “5–8”. If your software does not provide an en-dash, please use two hyphen characters.

5.1 Specific Formatting to Avoid

Here is a list of formatting practices that you should avoid:

  • Manual line breaks (commonly added using shift and enter)

  • Fixed page breaks

  • Indentation with space characters or tabs

  • Alternate letter spacing (with space characters)

  • Underlines

  • Do not use double round brackets

  • Special symbols based on components from different fonts (with sub- or superscript formatting or changed spacing)

  • Do not emphasise phrases or whole passages of running text

  • Underlining text and use of multi-colour text and capital letters for emphasis should be avoided

6. Uniform Formatting

  • It is mandatory that all documents are submitted in a uniform format.

  • Use standard file types and formats in your word processing software

If several authors or individuals were involved in drafting the manuscript (such as for an anthology), please make sure that all articles have the same format, such as:

  • layout, style, and spelling,

  • consistent use of signs, numbers, symbols, highlightings, spellings, etc. according to the language in the manuscript.

Please note the following in regards to uniform formatting and languages:

  • If the manuscript is in German, orthography should be based on the latest edition of Duden or Wahrig.

  • If the manuscript is in English, either American or British English may be used, but spelling should be uniform throughout the manuscript, contribution or single articles. Orthography should follow the respective rules (for example, the Chicago Manual of Style).

If the manuscript is for a book series, please check in advance if there are special standardisation requirements. In the event of uncertainty, consult with the editor for the series.

6.1 Key Uniform Formatting Elements

Please pay special attention to the uniform formatting of the following elements.

Punctuation according to the used language


Highlighting in text

Uniform spelling

Quotation marks,apostrophes,
dashes, and hyphens

Years, dates, numbers and units

For example, using italics
to highlight significant terms
when they are first mentioned

Abbreviations such as fig.
and tab., and foreign words

7. Headings

Your manuscript should be subdivided into sections (and, if necessary, subsections). These sections should be labelled with headings.

All headings, including chapter and contribution headings, should be left-justified. Please do not use capitals.

Headings and contribution titles should be succinct (approximately 80–100 characters) and expressive and should not be concluded with a period. Please avoid an excessive number of sections/subsections if possible.

If the manuscript is in English, please write headings as follows:

  • “sentence style” (i.e., capitalisation of the first word and all proper nouns)

  • “headline style” (i.e., capitalisation of all words, except articles and prepositions).

  • The main title of the publication should be set in “headline style.”

  • Make sure that headline capitalisation is uniform throughout the entire document.

8. Paragraphs

All first paragraphs start without an indent. Following paragraphs should have an indent in the first line. Also, do not add blank lines between paragraphs.


When adding quotes, you should use:

  • Rounded quotation marks (“...”) not "straight" ones.

  • Single quotation marks enclose quotations within quotations

Quotes are also formatted differently, depending on their length.

  • Short quotes (up to 60 words) should be integrated into the body text with quotation marks.

  • Longer quotes (more than three lines) should be formatted as block quotes. They should not be enclosed within quotation marks. Please add two returns before and after the blockquote and do not indent it with tabulator or space characters.

When quoting a source, please make sure to faithfully transcribe spelling and punctuation. To add information or paraphrasing for clarity, use brackets [ ]. To jump over a section of the source material, use ellipses [...].

All quotations in languages other than English should be followed by the translation in square brackets.

Please provide the source and page number(s) for all quotations.

10. Abbreviations

Here are our guidelines on using abbreviations:

  • Use only the most common abbreviations (i.e., etc., e.g., et al.).

  • Do not use periods after acronyms (i.e., SFH, not S.F.H.).

  • Abbreviations common in linguistics (NP, V, ACC) may be used in numbered examples, but the terms should be written out in full in the text, where possible.

  • Names of languages may be abbreviated when prefixed to words cited, as in “the meaning of OEngl. guma” but not in running text, as in “the meaning of guma in Old English.”

  • Names of theories or concepts may be abbreviated. The abbreviation must be introduced at first mention, e.g., “the Spatialization of Form Hypothesis (SFH).”

  • Do not use sequences of letters to represent titles of books or names of publishers. For example, “Jackendoff 1993” not “S&C” (Semantics and Cognition); “Oxford University Press” not “OUP.”

11. Citations

Brief citations should be used in the text. Here are different examples of how to write citations:


How to reference

One author

(Bouissac 1985)

Two authors

(Smith and Jones 1995)

Three authors

(Uexküll, Geigges, and Host 1993)

Four or more authors (but include all authors in the reference section)

(Smith et al. 1990: 38)

Multiple works by one author

(Bouissac 1987a, 1987b, 1994)

Works by different authors

(Bouissac 1985; Deakin 1993)

No dropped digits in inclusive numbers

(Hockett 1964: 140–145)

Volume number

(Balat and Dove 1992, 1: 210)

Reprints: with original date at first mention (in all subsequent citations say “Dickens 1987: 73”)

(Dickens [1854] 1987: 73)

The date should always be shown in brackets. For example:

  • “Bloomfield (1933: 123–125) introduced the term ...”

  • “In his (1922) article, Sapir argued that ...”

Full bibliographical details should be provided in the reference section at the end of the book or article.

With articles in journals or anthologies, indicate the page range without abbreviating the second number. Please provide page numbers in full, and do not use “f.”, “ff.”. For example, 273–275 rather than 273 ff. or 273–75.

Where possible, avoid referring to an entire book, but provide page numbers instead.

12. Appendices and Footnotes

If you need to include additional materials, please do so in an appendix following the text. It’s also important to use footnotes, not endnotes, at the bottom of a page to provide an explanation, reinforcement, or reference for an element of your work.

Footnote numbering should be continuous in the manuscript but, if desired, the numbering can start over at the beginning of each new chapter. We recommend resetting the footnote numbering for each new chapter if the total number of footnotes is more than approx. 1000.

Footnote numbers in the text should be superscript (small raised) numbers without parentheses. The number of the footnote should directly follow the word in question or a punctuation mark, with no blank space inserted.

Please avoid using footnotes in headings or titles. This affects footnotes that are indicated by number as well as footnotes marked with an asterisk. Notes, acknowledgments, and other information should be included by adding a separate paragraph to the footer.

13. Bibliography and References

Here are our guidelines on how to create a bibliography and references:

  • The format for reference entries should follow the Unified Style Sheet for Linguistics.

  • Please provide full author date citation and do not use dashes or abbreviations such as ibid, ebd., a.a.O., op. cit., p. and pp.

  • All reference entries should be standardised.

  • All works cited in the text must be listed in the reference section.

  • The reference section should only include works that are cited in the text.

  • Where possible, please provide the full first names of authors and editors.

  • Initials require periods and should be spaced, e.g., Ronald W. Langacker, R. M. W. Dixon.

  • Entries should show the full title and subtitle of each work.

  • Page numbers of articles in journals or edited works should be inclusive.

  • Reference entries for multiple works by the same author/editor or group of authors/editors should be listed chronologically, with the oldest publication at the top and the newest at the bottom.

  • The reference entries for authored works and edited works by a single author should not be mixed together but rather grouped separately.

Please do:

  • Provide both the place of publication and the name of the publisher

  • Translate titles in languages other than French, German, Italian and Spanish into English. The translation should be written in the Roman alphabet, in lowercase, and should be placed in square brackets directly after the italicised original title

  • Abbreviate “edition” in reference entries as “edn.” (to set it apart from “ed.” for “editor”)

Please do not:

  • Drop digits in inclusive page numbers

  • Abbreviate the names of journals, book series, publishers or conferences

  • Use “et al.” in reference entries; all authors/editors should be named

  • Use EM-dashes to replace repeated author/editor names, as each reference must be complete as a unit

  • Use line returns within individual reference entries. The right- and left-hand margins will be set during technical production

13.1 Sample Reference Entries

  • Book (authored work)

    Sposato, Adam. 2021. A Grammar of Xong. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

  • Book (edited work)

    Fagard, Benjamin, José Pinto de Lima, Dejan Stosic & Elena Smirnova (eds.). 2020. Complex Adpositions in European Languages: A Micro-Typological Approach to Complex Nominal Relators. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

  • Contribution in an edited work

    Koch, Harold. 2021. Associated motion in the Pama-Nyungan languages of Australia. In Antoine Guillaume & Harold Koch (eds.), Associated Motion, 231–324. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

    Roever, Carsten & Naoki Ikeda. 2020. Testing pragmatic competence in a second language. In Klaus P. Schneider & Elly Ifantidou (eds.), Developmental and Clinical Pragmatics, 475–496. (Handbooks of Pragmatics 13). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

Entries for contributions in edited works should always include full bibliographical information for the edited work. Abbreviating the entry (here with “In Guillaume & Koch, 231–324”) is not acceptable.

If a contribution in an edited work is cited in the article text, a separate, additional entry for the edited work should not be included in the References unless the edited work is cited directly and as a whole.

  • New edition

    Plag, Ingo, Sabine Arndt-Lappe, Maria Braun & Mareile Schramm. 2015 [2007]. Introduction to English Linguistics, 3rd edn. Berlin/Boston: Mouton De Gruyter.

  • Translation

    Lagopoulos, Alexandros Ph. & Karin Boklund-Lagopoulou. 2016. Θεωρία σημειωτικής: Η παράδοση του Ferdinand de Saussure [Semiotic theory: the tradition of Ferdinand de Saussure]. Athens: Patakis Publishers.

The English translation of the title should not be capitalised.

  • Journal article

    van de Weijer, Jeroen, Weiyun Wei, Yumeng Wang, Guangyuan Ren & Yunyun Ran. 2020. Words are constructions, too: A construction-based approach to English ablaut reduplication. Linguistics 58(6). 1701–1735.

  • Journal article (online)

    Peters, Arne & Susan Coetzee-Van Rooy. 2020. Exploring the interplay of language and body in South African youth: A portrait-corpus study. Cognitive Linguistics 31(4).

Publication date is the year of online publication or the year of the latest update. If neither is available, please provide the access date in parentheses at the end of the entry.

  • Special issue of a journal (cited as a whole)

    van Krieken, Kobie, José Sanders & Eve Sweetser (eds.). 2019. Time and Viewpoint in Narrative Discourse. [Special issue]. Cognitive Linguistics 30(2).

  • Thesis/dissertation

    De Clercq, Karen. 2013. A unified syntax of negation. Ghent: Ghent University dissertation.

  • Article in conference proceedings

    Rao, A. Giridhar. 2017. English in multilingual India: Promise and illusion. In Hywel Coleman (ed.), Multilingualism and development: Selected proceedings of the 11th Language & Development Conference, New Delhi, India, 2015, 281–288. London: British Council.

  • Talk or poster presented at a conference or other event

    Buckley, Eugene. 2013. Prosodic structure in Southeastern Pomo stress. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA), Boston, 3–6 January, 2013.

  • Several works by one author/editor with the same publication date

    Vennemann, Theo. 2000a. From quantity to syllable cuts: On so-called lengthening in the Germanic languages. Journal of Italian Linguistics/Rivista di Linguistica 12. 251–282.

    Vennemann, Theo. 2000b. Triple-cluster reduction in Germanic: Etymology without sound laws? Historische Sprachwissenschaft 113. 239–258.

Publication date is the year of online publication or year of the latest update. If neither is available, please provide the access date in parentheses at the end of the entry.

14. Referring to Text Passages

If you are referring to other text passages within the same publication, please indicate the chapter number rather than specific pages or page ranges (i.e., see ch. 5.3.3), as these can change during the production process. However, if it becomes necessary to refer to page numbers, please insert XXX. The placeholder will be removed at the end of the production process.

15. Mathematical Formulas and Equations

Please use the program Math Type or the formula editor in Word to add formulas to your manuscript. It is important that you use just one formula editor within the manuscript.

If formulas are to be numbered, use automatic numbering as well as consecutive numbering for the entire chapter. The numbers should be right-justified and enclosed in parentheses.

16. Measurement Units

Please use a metric system such as the International System of Units (SI). For compound units, Unicode symbols must be used.

17. Interlinear Type

Please use blind tables (=tables without frames) for formatting glosses and transcriptions.

18. Indices

Alphabetically organised indices are a useful aid for the readers of academic works. Your manuscript may feature one index or several indices. For example, you could include a register of persons, or a subject index, language index, or author index.

On average, textbooks and handbooks contain six to 10 index entries per book page, while monographs and anthologies contain four to eight index entries per book page. In this connection, image captions, figure captions, and tables may be taken into account.

As a rule, index entries should be in the singular and noun forms should be used. The spelling in the manuscript should dictate the spelling in the index. This also applies to terms that are spelled with a hyphen.

Cross-references make it easier for readers to use the index. The use of cross-references is advisable if the entry that is cross-referenced contains additional information, such as subentries or page numbers.

In case you have conceptual queries, the respective responsible editor will be happy to assist you.

18.1 The Index Function in Word Processing Software

When drafting your manuscript with standard word processing software, the index should be contained in the primary file. If you are using Microsoft Word, please use the native index feature.

If you are using another program, please use the index feature in that program, if available.

This is the preferred method for creating your index.

18.2 Manual Indexing

For manual preparation, the indices will be typeset on the basis of a file provided by the author/editor, listing all entries and the corresponding page numbers. This file must be based on the final set of proofs.

The quality of a manual index critically depends on the careful selection of keywords. Here is how to ensure your index is high quality:

  • Use only a small number of keywords that best capture the essence of your work.

  • Index only the most central occurrences of a keyword and not every single occurrence of the keyword.

  • Index the main body of the text, and do not tag keywords in chapter titles, references, and footnotes.

  • When indexing phrases rather than individual words, please choose an appropriate keyword under which the phrase is to be sorted. For example, you need to decide whether “conceptual structure” is to be indexed under “conceptual” or under “structure, conceptual.”

  • In some instances, you may want to index a passage with a particular keyword that is not directly used in the passage. You are welcome to do this.

  • If you want to index a passage that extends across several pages, please add the keyword and the page range. For example, conceptual structure, 130–142.

19. Tables

Tables should be created using the table functionality of Word or Excel. When creating tables, do not use empty spaces or tabs, and please ensure that the table is clearly structured.

If the tables are submitted in separate files, be sure to note clearly where the tables are to be inserted in the main text (i.e., include here chapter5_tab5.2_Schmidt.xls). Each table should have a short heading and a numbering (i.e., Table 1 or Table 1.2, Table 2.4).

Footnotes within tables should not be included in the regular numbering of the publication. They are to be included at the end of the table.

Tables should be given titles and numbered consecutively throughout a monograph and per chapter in an edited volume. The title of a table should appear above the table.

20. Images and Figures

Images and figures should not be inserted directly into the manuscript but should be saved in a separate file. Please clearly note where the image/figure should be positioned in the manuscript (i.e., “include here 01_ fig1.5_Meier.jpg“). Each image/figure should have a numbering and a short caption that explains abbreviations and symbols. If the manuscript contains a large number of images/figures, please submit a separate list that provides information about the images/figures, their respective sizes, etc.

As with tables, figures should also be given titles and numbered consecutively throughout a monograph and per chapter in an edited volume. However, in this case, the title of a figure should appear below the figure.

Images can be supplied in both colour or grayscale, but grayscale is the preferred option. Colour images are possible in reasonable amounts or if colour is required for legibility of the content.

Detailed information concerning the submission of image files can be found in our Image & Figure Instructions.

21. Maps

If your book or article describes a language that is little known, or if it will help the reader to identify geographic locations, it may be useful to include a map. Please bear in mind the following:

  • All national boundaries in the area shown on the map must be drawn in, and countries, counties or federal states bordering on the area of main interest must be named (i.e., a land-locked area should not be represented as if it were an island).

  • All major oceans, lakes, rivers and towns shown should be labelled.

  • An inset can be useful to help identify the location of the area in question.

22. Media Files (Audio and Video)

When including media files, please deliver audio and video files as separate files and do not integrate them directly into the manuscript. Please note clearly where the files are to be positioned in the manuscript. Media files should possess a short caption and should be numbered consecutively.

Table 2. File formats for multimedia files


File format



Video files


23. Linguistic Examples

When including linguistic examples, you must:

  • Number examples consecutively throughout a monograph (i.e., not chapter by chapter)

  • Number examples article by article in an edited work

Linguistic examples with interlinear glossing should follow the Leipzig Glossing Rules and should be presented as shown below.

Use the table function to align the glosses in invisible tables (remove table borders and use gridlines for orientation). This allows for the alignment to be retained when your manuscript is paginated during production. Please do not use blank spaces and/or multiple tabs to align the glosses. These are difficult to retain during typesetting, and unwanted shifting may thus occur.

Example Linguistics

Examples in English should be set in italics:


I sent the artefacts to an anthropologist.

References to examples in the text should take the form “see (2a) and (2b)” with both numbers and letters in brackets.

24. Additional Material

When submitting your manuscript, you are welcome to submit additional material for release at De Gruyter Online. Please coordinate this with the editor. Please clearly label this material, compile it in a .zip file, and submit it with your manuscript.

Manuscript Preparation Checklist

1. Our Guidelines to Ensure Your Manuscript is Ready

Want to make sure your manuscript is ready? Here’s a checklist that covers some of the most important guidelines.

2. Document Structure

  • Have you used the unaltered, predefined style sheets?

  • Have you defined, under “Paragraph” (in Word/InDesign), any potentially necessary spacing between layout elements and the configuration of lines and paragraphs?

  • Have you made sure not to add any additional blank paragraphs or double spaces?

  • Are any section titles (for example, Part I: Literary work; Part II: Essays, etc.) inserted clearly as section titles? That is, separate sheets of paper containing only the section title.

  • Do cross-references made in the body text refer to chapter numbers (and not page numbers)?

  • Have you removed any footnotes from the titles?

  • Do the column titles and headers (shortened, where necessary) match the chapter titles?

  • Are the names of the authors in the bibliography written out in full in each entry and not abbreviated with ellipses or dashes?

  • Are Unicode fonts being used consistently for symbols that cannot be executed using De Gruyter fonts, for example, Hebrew, Arabic, or special symbols?

  • Are all fonts running in the correct direction?

  • Are keywords and references marked in the text?

  • Are all images used in the document complete? Are all images saved as separate files, and do the file names match the file references in the text?

3. Layout

Type area

  • Do all lines/tables/figures fit in the type area?

  • Do all the pages always start at the same height of the type area? (No blank lines at the beginning of the page; figures/tables/linguistic examples/quotations begin at the same height as the text.)

  • Have you made sure that there is not too much empty space at the end of the type area?

Layout elements

  • Do the dedication, foreword, table of contents, first chapter (in the case of edited volumes, all chapters), bibliography, index and appendices all start on the right side (i.e., on odd pages)?

  • Is your page numbering correct (front matter in Roman numerals; body matter and back matter in Arabic numerals)?

  • Is the first-line indent correct in new paragraphs within the body text and in quotations and footnotes? (Exception: paragraphs after titles and insertions [e.g., quotations, tables, lists, figures, formulas, etc.] are not indented.)

  • Have the running titles been removed from empty pages and the first pages of chapters/articles?

  • Are all running titles/headers only on one line?

  • Have you manually removed all empty vertical spaces before main chapter titles (at the top of the page)?

  • Have you made sure there are no periods at the end of titles?

  • Have you made sure there are no blank spaces before footnote indicators (i.e., superscript footnote numbers) in the body text?

  • Is the spacing after the footnote numbers uniform in the footnotes?

  • Does the layout of the tables adhere to the De Gruyter corporate layout?

  • Do the figures adhere to the De Gruyter corporate layout?

  • Are the titles of the tables and the captions placed after the figures?

  • Are the individual elements in the formulas easy to read?

  • Have you made sure that block quotations do not have quotation marks before or after them?

  • Are hyperlinks formatted properly and not manually underlined?

  • Have you made sure there are blank spaces, not commas, after headwords in index entries?

  • Are the positions of elements that should be included marked in the text (e.g., images, tables, media files)?

Typographical details

  • Are there any “widows” or “orphans” (i.e., single lines at the top or bottom of the page)?

  • Have all large gaps between words been removed? (Has the automatic hyphenation tool been activated? Have you checked – and, where necessary, manually separated – technical terms, hyperlinks and word groups separated by a forward slash?)

  • Are the quotation marks and apostrophes used correctly?

  • Have you made sure that there are no straight (“dumb”) quotes or apostrophes where there should be typographic ones?

  • Have you checked to ensure that all symbols used in pairs (i.e., quotes and parentheses) are complete?

  • Have you made sure there are no blank spaces before or after the slash in word pairs separated by slashes (e.g., Berlin/Boston)?

  • Have you correctly entered a non-breaking space wherever it is necessary?

  • Have you made sure there are no punctuation marks at the beginning of a line?

  • Have you made sure there is no space before or after the en-dash in order to express a range of numbers or period of time? For example, 1999–2000.

  • Have en-dashes been used instead of bullet points in lists?

  • Have you made sure to avoid underlining, two forms of emphasis (e.g. italics and bold), all uppercase formatting, and small caps?

  • Are all non-latin characters or symbols available as Unicode-font?

  • Are quotes longer than three lines set as block quotes with a space before and after?

  • Have you used correct quotation marks throughout the whole publication?

  • Is the usage of footnotes consistent (i.e., citation system)? Are all footnotes removed from headings and/or titles?

4. PDF Export

  • Has the PDF file been created in the final format (155x230/170x240 mm) and not in A4 format (210x287 mm)?

  • Have the fonts been embedded, and can the text be searched/copied in the PDF file?

  • Are the colour settings accurate (grayscale for B/W figures/text; CMYK for colour figures)?

  • Are all font sizes 5 pt or greater?

  • Is the image resolution high enough? (Pixel images: 300 ppi; grayscale/colour images with writing: 600 ppi; line drawings: 1200 ppi)

5. Additional Checks

  • Are all files available and named? Do the files have the correct formats (for example, .doc or .docx for Word files)?

  • Are the usage rights obtained for all third-party content?

  • Is the manuscript completely revised and edited (content, language)? Are all spellings and highlighting used consistently (especially when working together with several persons)?

  • Were all points checked that should be avoided?

  • Does all supplementary material exist in a zip file?

Need additional assistance with your manuscript submission?

If you have a question that we were unable to answer here, please email us at or contact your responsible editor.

Downloaded on 29.1.2023 from
Scroll Up Arrow