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understand what they mean, to attain rich and accurate interpretations of these stories, and to grasp the plight of patients in all their complexity.”8 Beyond the clinical and scientific skills of medicine, such narrative competence encourages health care professionals to attend to patients as individuals and as protagonists in their own lives. Reciprocally, narrative competence might be extended to patients, who stand to benefit from the similar humanizing of their health care providers. Certainly a narrative medicine can help patients and physicians know each other in

founding director of the McGovern Center for Humanities and Ethics at University of Texas Medical School in Houston. JaCk Coulehan , M.D., is an emeritus professor of medicine and senior fellow, Center for Medical Humanities, Compassionate Care, and Bioethics at Stony Brook University in New York. sayantanI dasguPta , M.D., M.P.H., is an assistant clinical professor of pedi- atrics; faculty, Master’s Program in Narrative Medicine; and co- chair, University Seminar in Narrative, Health, and Social Justice at Columbia University in New York, New York. alICe dRegeR


toward a pluralistic culture in which diversity and particularity replaced more universalizing terms, due, in part, to the emerging social movements and identity politics of the 1960s. While it is overly simplistic to think that the two cultures rhetoric simply vanished, the emergence of narrative medicine in the 1980s and the development of medical humanities research in the 1990s and 2000s have also helped transform the binaries of the mid-twentieth century into layered patterns of understanding. This transformation of knowledge structures finds a

, Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); Arthur Kleinman, The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing and the Human Condition (New York: Basic Books, 1988). 12. Irving Kirsch, Brett J. Deacon, Tania B. Huedo-Medina, Alan Scoboria, Thomas J. Moore, and Blair T. Johnson, “Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta- Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration,” PLOS Medicine 5, no. 2 (2008). 13. Sharon Begley, “Depressing News on Antidepressants,” Newsweek, Blog, February 25, 2008. 14. Judy

176 14 Authenticity and Empathy in Education Team- Teaching “The Voices Proj ect: Mental Health” AMANDA M. CALEB AND AL ICIA H. NORDSTROM Rita Charon and other scholars of narrative medicine have emphasized the need for doctors to develop close listening skills that translate to meaningful engage- ment, attentive interpretation, and better patient care.1 These skills that emphasize both empathy and authenticity are fundamental to education more broadly, particularly at Misericordia University, a small Catholic University that enrolls approximately 1

humanities because of a felt inadequacy within the health sciences to teach us all we need to know to care for patients. Human- ists look to medicine as one place where momentous questions are encountered quite literally in the flesh. The medical humanities depend on conversations and collaborations across disciplines that directly impact how medicine is under- stood and practiced. In June 2013 I was among over four hundred attendees of a conference in Lon- don celebrating twenty- five years of “narrative medicine.” The conference fea- tured the wide variety of

, 3, 23; discourse’s defining power over, 16, 23; experience of, 2; taxonomy of, 1. See also biological psychiatry; DSM; insanity (madness); specific illnesses metaphor (rhetorical structure), 11, 15, 61, 94–114, 116–122, 154, 201n38. See also specific metaphors Metzl, Jonathan Michel, 19, 190n8, 195n9 Miller, Carolyn, 85, 157 INDEX 211 Moldin, Steven, 30 motherhood, 42, 52, 65, 80, 110, 125, 143, 178–180. See also advertising; depression; gender(ing) Narrative Medicine (Charon), 182–183 narrative (rhetorical structure), 11, 15, 61, 71, 124, 126–131, 134–140, 142

also online learning Morrill Act (1862, 1890), 11, 12, 52, 60, 62, 67n5, 73, 111, 162, 179 Mozilla, 61 Napolitano, Janet, 32 narrative medicine, 132, 139 National Center for Education Statistics, 35. See also Department of Education National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), 6, 119 National Humanities Alliance, 127– 128 National Schools of Science, 18 National Science Foundation (NSF), 40 neoliberal antihumanism, 149 New America Foundation, 8 New Deal, 93 new deal for the humanities, 5– 13, 62; evaluating outcomes of, 6– 8; funding of, 6; organization of

://, accessed April 24, 2009. Casto, K. L., S. Krippner, and R. Tartz. 1999. “The Identification of Spiritual Content in Dream Reports.” Anthropology of Consciousness 10 (1): 43–51. Caudill, William, and Helen Weinstein. 1969. “Maternal Care and Infant Behavior in Japan and America.” Psychiatry 32: 12–43. CDI. 1973. Kyoto Shomin Seikatsushi [History of the lifestyle of common people of Kyoto]. Kyoto: Kyoto Shinyō Kinko. Charon, Rita. 2009. “Narrative Medicine as Witness for the Self-Telling Body.” Journal of Applied Communication Research 37 (2) (May): 118–131. CIA