Fibre fabrics in liquid composite moulding can be considered as dual-scale porous media. In different gap scales, an unsaturated flow is produced during the mould filling process. This particular flow behaviour deviates from the traditional Darcy’s law, which is used to calculate the filling pressure and will cause errors. To prove the mechanism of this unsaturated flow, an experimental device was set up with a one-dimensional constant flow rate. The influencing factors, such as injected media, flow velocity and fibre fabric, were investigated in this study. Based on the experimental data, several useful conclusions were drawn, providing good references for optimising the process parameters and controlling the product quality.
In this work, we have designed and synthesized the fluorescent probe 1, which was capable to selectively detect fluoride anion (F−). More importantly, the probe 1 possessed near-infrared excitation and emission wavelengths (excitation at 650 nm and emission at 695), and the probe solution had changed dramatically from yellow to cyan with the addition of F–. In addition, the fluorescence intensity exhibited perfectly positive correlation with concentration of F− concentration from 0 to 40 μM (R2 = 0.9972), which offered the important condition for quantitative analysis. The probe 1 owned detection limit of 46 nM. Therefore, this near-infrared probe can be of great benefit for detecting F− in practical application.
BCN coatings with different chemical compositions were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering via adjusting N2 flow. The influence of N2 flow on the bonding structure, mechanical and tribological properties of coating was studied. The structural analysis indicated the coexistence of B-N, B-C, and N-C bonds, suggesting the formation of a ternary BCN hybridization. The maximum Vickers hardness of 1614.7 HV was obtained at the low N2 flow (5 sccm), whereas the adhesion strength of BCN coatings on 316L stainless steel was improved with an increase of N2 flow. The friction behavior of BCN coatings sliding against different materials (acerbic, beech and lauan wood) was performed using ball-on-disk tribo-meter in air. The low friction coefficient was easier to obtain as sliding against hardwood i.e. acerbic balls. BCN-5 and BCN-10 coatings presented better wear resistance regardless of softwood or hardwood, whilst other two coatings were more suitable for mating softwood i.e. beech and lauan.
A simple and coumarin-based fluorescence probe has been designed and synthesized with silyl group as recognition group of fluoride ions (F−) in this study. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity of the probe displayed prominent enhancement with addition of F− at 445 nm with incubation of 1 min. There was an excellent linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and fluoride concentration from 0 to 30 μM (0~0.57 ppm), which offered the important condition for the quantitative analysis. In addition, the highly selective response to fluorion, the low detection limit with 28 nM (0.532 ppb), low toxicity and bioimaging afforded an advantage for practical application and detecting fluoride in biological systerms.