The aim of this study was to evaluate a measuring technique for determining soil CO2 efflux from large soil samples having undisturbed structure under controlled laboratory conditions. Further objectives were to use the developed measuring method for comparing soil CO2 efflux from samples, collected in three different soil management systems at various soil water content values. The experimental technique was tested and optimised for timing of sampling by taking air samples after 1, 3 and 6 hours of incubation. Based on the results, the incubation time was set to three hours. The CO2 efflux measured for different soil management systems was the highest in the no-till and the lowest in the ploughing treatment, which was in accordance with measurements on accessible organic carbon for microbes. An increase in CO2 efflux with increasing soil water content was found in the studied soil water content range. Our results indicate that soil respiration rates, measured directly after tillage operations, can highly differ from those measured long after.
Catchment scale hydrological models are promising tools for simulating the effect of catchment-specific processes and management on soil and water resources. Here, we present a model intercomparison study of runoff simulations using three different semi-distributed rainfall-runoff catchment models. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of the Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenavdelning (HBV-Light); Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Runoff Simulator for Solute Transport (PERSiST); and INtegrated CAtchment (INCA) models on Somogybabod Catchment, near Lake Balaton, Hungary.
The models were calibrated and validated against observed discharge data at the outlet of the catchment for the period of January 1, 2006 –July 12, 2015. Model performance was evaluated using graphical representations, e.g. daily and monthly hydrographs and Flow Duration Curves (FDC) and model evaluation statistic; Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The simulation results showed that the models provided good estimates of monthly average discharge (0.60–0.90 NSE; 0.60–0.91 R2) and satisfactory results for daily discharge (0.46–0.62 NSE; 0.50–0.67 R2). We found that the application of hydrological models serves as a powerful basis for ensemble modelling of average runoff and could enhance our understanding of the eco-hydrological and transport processes within catchments. On the other hand, it can highlight the uncertainty of model forecasts and the importance of goal specific evaluation.