In this study, reforms on childcare allowances and public pensions are examined in an extended lifecycle simulation model with endogenous fertility. A slight increase in family policies such as childcare allowances leads to increases in the total population but the magnitude of change is not large. As childcare allowances increase, however, the total population is cumulatively and progressively augmented, resulting in substantial growth in the total population and national income in the long run. Furthermore, from a long-term perspective, increases in childcare subsidies or decreases in public pension benefits are potentially Pareto-improving.
The relative difference in internal mobilities o f 6Li and 7Li, ε, in molten LiNO3 has been remeasured in the temperature range from 559 K to 726 K by countercurrent electromigration (Klemm 's method). As temperature increases, the isotope effect increases, although the increasing rate decreases: it is practically constant above 650 K. The ε values are lower than those measured by Lundén and Ekhed  by 15-25% . The effective diffusion coefficients have been estimated from the distribution of the isotopes in the separation tube by numerical simulation.