The Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam is composed of Fe-Cu-LREE-Au ore bodies hosted in Proterozoic metapelite. There are massive and banded replacement ores with variable amounts of monazite-(Ce) and chevkinite-(Ce) crystals, which have undergone fluid-induced alteration. Monazite-(Ce) and chevkinite-(Ce) were deposited from high-temperature fluids in the early ore-forming stage, but became thermodynamically unstable, and thus were altered to other phases in later ore-forming stages. The alteration of monazite-(Ce) formed a three-layered corona texture, which commonly has relict monazite-(Ce) in the core, newly formed fluorapatite in the mantle, and newly formed allanite-(Ce) in the rim. In some cases, the original monazite-(Ce) was completely consumed, forming a core of polygonal fluorapatite crystals rimmed by allanite-(Ce) crystals. The formation of allanite-(Ce) and fluorapatite at the expense of monazite-(Ce) indicates that the later-stage fluids had high Ca/Na ratios and relatively low temperatures. Chevkinite-(Ce) was variably replaced by an assemblage of allanite-(Ce) + aeschynite-(Ce) ± bastnäsite-(Ce) ± columbite-(Fe) ± ilmenite. The replacement of chevkinite-(Ce) by mainly allanite-(Ce) and aeschynite-(Ce) required low-temperature, Ca-, LREE-, and Nb-rich metasomatic fluids, probably with relatively low fo2.
Mass-balance calculations were made to investigate the hydrothermal element mobility. It is assumed that Th was immobile during the alteration process of monazite-(Ce). Light (and middle) REE from La to Tb, U, As, and Ge were variably lost relative to Th, while heavy REE from Dy to Lu, HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and Sr were variably gained relative to Th. Regarding the alteration of chevkinite-(Ce), some major elements in chevkinite-(Ce), such as Ti, La, and Ce, were obviously removed from the system during alteration, whereas Ca, Al, Nb, U, and HREE were needed to be variably supplied by the metasomatic fluids. Concerning the hydrothermal mobility of trace elements, previous studies demonstrated that REE and HFSE can be commonly reserved in the system during alteration, consistent with the traditionally assumed immobile nature of these elements. In contrast, this study shows that REE and HFSE can be mobilized on at least the hundreds of micrometers scale. This may be related to the high flux and strong chemical reactivity of the metasomatic fluids.
Metasomatic alteration of fluorapatite has been reported in several iron-oxide apatite (IOA) deposits, but its effect on elemental and isotopic variations has not been well understood. In this study, we present integrated elemental, U-Pb, Sr, and O isotopic microanalytical data on fresh and altered domains in fluorapatite from the Taocun IOA deposit, Eastern China, to evaluate the timing and nature of the metasomatism and its effects on the ore-forming event. Orebodies of the Taocun deposit are spatially associated with a subvolcanic, intermediate intrusion, which displays zonal alteration patterns with albite in the center and increasing actinolite, chlorite, epidote, and carbonate toward the margin. Both disseminated and vein-type ores are present in the Taocun deposit, and fluorapatite commonly occurs with magnetite and actinolite in most ores.
Fluorapatite grains from the both types of ores have been variably metasomatized through a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism. Many trace elements, including Na, Cl, S, Si, Mg, Sr, U, Th, and (REEs+Y), were variably leached from the fluorapatite grains during this process and the Sr and O isotopic signatures of the grains were also modified. The altered fluorapatite grains/domains have in situ 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70829–0.70971) slightly higher than those of the fresh fluorapatite (0.70777–0.70868), and δ18O values (–3.0 to +3.4‰) variably lower than the primary domains (+5.3 to +7.5‰). The Sr and O isotopes of the primary fluorapatite are consistent with or slightly higher than those of the ore-hosting intrusion, implying that the early-stage, ore-forming fluids were magmatic in origin but underwent weak interaction with the country rocks.
U-Pb dating of the fresh and altered domains of the fluorapatite yielded indistinguishable ages of ~131 Ma, which are the same as the age of the ore-hosting intrusion. In combination with fluid inclusion data, we propose that the metasomatism of fluorapatite was induced by hydrothermal fluids at a late stage of the ore-forming event. The shifts to higher87Sr/86Sr ratios and lower δ18O values in the altered fluor-apatite indicate that the alteration was induced by fluids with more radioactive Sr and lighter O isotope signatures. The metasomatic fluids were likely dominated by meteoric waters that were mixed with the earlier magmatic fluids and interacted with sedimentary rocks. Our study highlights that elemental and isotopic compositions of fluorapatite can be significantly modified by hydrothermal fluids during ore-forming events. Thus, instead of traditional bulk-rock analysis, in situ microanalysis is important to provide accurate constraints on the magmatic and/or hydrothermal evolution of complex ore-forming systems.
The pore size of commonly PES/PVP plasma separation modified membrane materials is not ideal enough. Based on that, in this paper, a newly developed plasma separator made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes was prepared by dry/wet phase inversion method with blended hydrophilic macromolecular polyethylene oxide (PEO). The effect of PEO concentration on PVDF hollow fiber membranes was evaluated for separation performance. The results showed that the pore size distribution of PVDF/PEO modified membrane was 0.30-0.93μm. In addition, the sieving coefficients of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were over 95%. And attenuated total reflection flourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATRFTIR) analysis confirmed that the PEO macromolecular additives remained within the PVDF modified membrane, which could effectively improve hydrophilicity of the membrane.