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The Efate Pumice Formation (EPF) is a trachydacitic volcaniclastic succession widespread in the central part of Efate Island and also present on Hat and Lelepa islands to the north. The volcanic succession has been inferred to result from a major, entirely subaqueous explosive event north of Efate Island. The accumulated pumice-rich units were previously interpreted to be subaqueous pyroclastic density current deposits on the basis of their bedding, componentry and stratigraphic characteristics. Here we suggest an alternative eruptive scenario for this widespread succession. The major part of the EPF is distributed in central Efate, where pumiceous pyroclastic rock units several hundred meters thick are found within fault scarp cliffs elevated about 800 m above sea level. The basal 200 m of the pumiceous succession is composed of massive to weakly bedded pumiceous lapilli units, each 2-3 m thick. This succession is interbedded with wavy, undulatory and dune bedded pumiceous ash and fine lapilli units with characteristics of co-ignimbrite surges and ground surges. The presence of the surge beds implies that the intervening units comprise a subaerial ignimbrite-dominated succession. There are no sedimentary indicators in the basal units examined that are consistent with water-supported transportation and/or deposition. The subaerial ignimbrite sequence of the EPF is overlain by a shallow marine volcaniclastic Rentanbau Tuffs. The EPF is topped by reef limestone, which presumably preserved the underlying EPF from erosion. We here propose that the EPF was formed by a combination of initial subaerial ignimbrite-forming eruptions, followed by caldera subsidence. The upper volcaniclastic successions in our model represent intra-caldera pumiceous volcaniclastic deposits accumulated in a shallow marine environment in the resultant caldera. The present day elevated position of the succession is a result of a combination of possible caldera resurgence and ongoing arc-related uplift in the region.
. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 2009, 184, 292–312 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.04.006   Clarke H., Troll V.R., Carracedo J.C., Phreatomagmatic to Strombolian eruptive activity of basaltic cinder cones: Montana Los Erales, Tenerife, Canary Islands, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 2009, 180, 225–245 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.11.014   Brand B.D., Clarke A.B., The architecture, eruptive history, and evolution of the Table Rock Complex, Oregon: From a Surtseyan to an energetic maar eruption, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 2009, 180, 203
-lithostatic overpressure in the
magmatic plumbing system that connected the crustal basaltic reservoir with the partial melting zone
of the lithospheric mantle, and the disordered calcite ± trachyte as quenched residual, immiscible melts,
generated close to the solidus of the carbonated alkali basalt differentiated in the crustal reservoir.
The quenching event was a phreato-magmatic eruption within the stability field of the low-pressure
calcite; this was triggered by advective overpressure, caused by expanding gas bubbles in a quasi-
incompressible silicate melt system. The high
geomorphology ( Boivin et al. 1982 , Traglia et al. 2009 , Kshirsagar et al. 2016 ). Therefore, these phreatomagmatic and mixed eruptive centres play a crucial role as good sensors of the environmental variation ( Wood 1980 , Siebe 1986 , Németh et al. 2001 ), mostly when superficial and ground water-table level changed ( Lorenz 1984 , Büchel 1993 , Büchel et al. 2000 ). In this work, we will concentrate on the volcanic geomorphological typology of the eruptive landforms through a well-illustrated volcanic features inventory, presented with simple and concise
features, Acta Vulcanologica, 1995, 7, 145–153  Seghedi I., Szakács A., The Upper Pliocene- Pleistocene effusive and explosive basaltic volcanism from the Persani Mountains, Romanian Journal of Petrology, 1994, 76, 101–107  Karátson D., Oláh I., Pécskay Z., Márton E., Harangi S., Dulai A., Zelenka T., Kósik S., Miocene volcanism in the Visegrad Mountains (Hungary): an integrated approach to regional volcanic stratigraphy, Geol. Carpath., 2007, 58, 541–563  Németh K., Martin U., Harangi S., Miocene phreatomagmatic volcanism at Tihany (Pannonian Basin