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message, to single wolves they indicate a mated pair, and to other pairs they warn against territorial intrusion (Peters and Mech 1975b; Rothman and Mech 1979). 86 Fred H. Harrington and Cheryl S. Asa A particular feature of female wolf reproductive phys- iology associated with urine marking that may facili- tate pair bonding is the relatively long proestrous period (average 6 weeks: Asa et al. 1986) compared with that of the dog (1 week: Christie and Bell 1971a). Proestrus is preceded by a transient increase in testosterone and ac- companied by elevated estrogen