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  • Author: J.J. PETTER x
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Nursing education today is primarily catered within the framework of higher education and combined with a health care sector that is rapidly changing, this has put the focus on educational outcome. The present study focuses on this outcome in terms of generic and professional skills and the professional preparedness of the students. 1,110 students in their final semester of a general nursing program at 24 universities in Sweden responded to questionnaires. The results revealed that the students perceived themselves to have especially developed their information-seeking abilities, critical and analytical thinking and professional knowledge and skills, whereas they did not perceive their education to have similarly developed their understanding of people from other cultures or their engagement in the development of society. Significant differences between men and women in relation to educational outcome were found in almost all areas of the study.

The researchers surveyed nursing students yearly during their three-year education, and examined active and emotional engagement. We examined the association of these properties with seven independent variables: higher educational institution, class size, age, gender, prior assistant nurse education, study experience and self-rated health. This longitudinal study included 1,334 students from 24 universities and university colleges in Sweden. Active engagement increased and emotional engagement decreased during the study years. Male students, older students and those with prior assistant nurse education had higher active engagement than other students. Older students, females, students with good self-rated health and those attending universities had higher emotional engagement. Study results suggest that higher educational institutions should pay more attention to students’ active and emotional engagement in learning situations, since this may increase the ability of the students to cope with stressful events during their education, giving them an extra resource on which they can draw.


Single crystals of tertiary-butyl-alcohol (TBA) have been grown by a zone refining technique. A review of the phases and the properties of TBA crystals is presented. The crystal structure of phase IV has been determined at 295 K: space group P[unk], a = 6.393(2), b = 9.481(3), c = 15.126(4) Å, α = 85.47(2)°, β = 79.60(2)°, γ = 76.01(2)°, V = 874.3 Å3, Z = 6. The molecules are arranged in helical chains along the a-axis and connected by hydrogen bonds. The optical properties have been studied and interference fringes have been used to determine the birefringence of the crystals: n1−n3 = 2.55 · 10−3, n2−n1 = 7.98 · 10−4 (λ = 488 nm, T = 294.7 K). The angle between two optical axes is 69° ± 1.5° and a mean index of refraction is [unk] = 1.41 ± 0.02.


A liquid–liquid extraction system suitable for studies of chemical properties of Hs (element 108), in the form of HsO4, was developed using γ-emitting isotopes of its homologue Os. The system is targeted for the fast on-line extraction system SISAK, which operates in a continuous manner and is suitable for liquid-phase studies of transactinide elements. The distribution of OsO4 between various dilute NaOH solutions and toluene was studied. Both batch and SISAK on-line experiments were performed to develop an appropriate system. From analysis of the extraction curves equilibrium constants for the formation of the presumed complexes, Na[OsO4(OH)] and Na2[OsO4(OH)2], were obtained: K 1=(1±0.5)×104 and K 2=12±8, respectively. The SISAK system includes a liquid-scintillation detection system for α measurements. Due to quenching effects it is not possible to perform direct measurement of the aqueous phase α´s. Therefore, a two-stage extraction method that provides an indirect measurement of the activity in the aqueous phase was developed as part of the proposed system for Hs: Acidification of the raffinate from the first stage result in recovery of OsO4, which is highly extractable into toluene. The yield of extraction in the second step, from 0.01 M NaOH solution after acidification with H2SO4 solution, was (90±3) %.



Akershus University Hospital has since 2012 worked systematically towards improving the process of transfer for adolescents from the Department for Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine (DPAM) to adult services in our hospital.


To improve the transfer process of adolescents we aimed at moving from a more administrative focus on transfers to a transition programme. The aim was both short-term and long-term gains, namely quality improvement of the healthcare we are providing and valued health promotion outcomes.


A guided transition programme for adolescents was developed, piloted and introduced. It was developed in close collaboration with our youth council. An e-learning programme and a handbook for health care professionals were developed for implementation.


Data from the pilot testing the transition programme show that the adolescent participants found the information material to be relevant. They reported that it was used actively by the health professionals in their consultations and that they found this to be helpful. It was crucial that the management acknowledged and took responsibility for the programme. We experienced that a shared understanding of the adolescent patient in both sending and receiving departments was crucial.


Adolescent medicine should include competence and professionalism. Health care personnel must possess knowledge, skills and attitude that enable good, health promoting encounters. Further evaluation of pre- and post-implementation clinical outcomes, of patient empowerment and of satisfaction among employees will need to follow for evaluation of the effectiveness of this transition programme.