Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 26 of 26 items

  • Author: Paul Winter x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Trimesityltin bromide reacts with concentrated aqueous ammonia to give trimesityltin hydroxide. This compound eliminates mesitylen and yields dimesityltin oxide. The product was investigated bv 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffractions. Di-mesityltinoxide crystallizes in the space group P21/w with a = 25.38(1) Å, b = 12.525(5) Å, c= 32.91(1) Å, β= 91.37(3)° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z=8). The R-factor is 0.049 for 4688 symmetry-independent reflections. The trimeric molecules have six-membered tin-oxygen heterocycles in a twist conformation.

FREE ACCESS

Abstract

The formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and the corresponding irreversible capacity (C irr) of graphite negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries strongly depend on the surface morphology and surface chemistry of the respective graphite material. In particular, not only the BET specific surface area but also the absolute and relative extent of the basal plane and the “non-basal plane” surface area play a crucial role in SEI formation, as the transport of lithium ions into/from the anode during the charge/discharge operation mainly takes place via the prismatic surfaces. In this work, we report on the assessment of the graphite surface heterogeneity and the correlation between the amount of the different graphitic surfaces and the irreversible capacity. Based on the analysis of gas sorption data, we will show the influence of graphite surface groups on the adsorptive potential distribution of graphitic materials, in particular on the high energy surface sites (above 60 K), i.e. the so-called “defect” surfaces. These are related to polar carbon surface groups, such as carboxylic groups, alcohol groups or lactone groups. In contrast, less polar surface groups like quinone groups seem not to be related to the “defect” surface area, but belong to the prismatic surface area (below 50 K). Furthermore, we will demonstrate that the irreversible capacity of the first charge/discharge cycle is nearly proportional to the “non-basal plane” surface area, independent from the type of graphitic material.

Currently, the Council of the European Union is negotiating the European Commission’s recent proposal on cross-border mobility. This paper provides an overall assessment based on the proposal’s central pillars: freedom of establishment and protection of the interests of creditors, shareholders, and employees. The proposed directive meets a real necessity for regulation on a European level and pursues an ambitious agenda. While the general approach is excellent, there is room for improvement on some issues of importance.