In this paper we advance a nonlinear optimization problem for hedging wind power variability by using a dispatchable energy source (DES) like gas. The model considers several important aspects such as modeling of wind power production, electricity price, nonlinear penalization scheme for energy underproduction and interrelations among the considered variables. Results are given in terms of optimal co-generation policy with DES. The optimal policy is interpreted and analyzed in different penalization scenarios and related to a 48 MW hypothetical wind park. The model is suitable for integration of wind energy especially for isolated grids. Some probabilistic results for special moments of a Log-Normal distribution are obtained; they are necessary for the evolution of the optimal policy.
The major drawback of wind energy relies in its variability in time, which necessitates specific strategies to be settled. One such strategy can be the coordination of wind power production with a co-located power generation of dispatchable energy source (DES), e.g., thermal power station, combined heat and power plant, gas turbine or compressed air energy storage. In this paper, we consider an energy producer that generates power by means of a wind park and of a DES and sells the produced energy to an isolated grid. We determine the optimal quantity of energy produced by a DES, given the unit cost of this energy, that a power producer should buy and use to hedge against the risk inherent in the production of energy through wind turbines. We determine the optimal quantity by solving a static optimization problem taking into account the possible dependence between the amount of energy produced by wind turbines and electricity prices by using a copula function. Several particular cases are studied that allow the determination of the optimal solution in an analytical closed form. Finally, a numerical example concerning a real 48 MW wind farm located in Poland and Polish Power Exchange shows the possibility of implementing the model in real-life problems.