Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), coupled with accurate quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry, was used for the stability study of acetylsalicylic acid within a variety of different organic solutions: methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran and 1,4-dioxane. With the use of gradient elution chromatography and mass spectrometry detection in negative ionization, MS and MS/MS spectra were recorded simultaneously. In addition, quantitative, as well as qualitative analysis was performed during one assay. The stability of acetylsalicylic acid in such solutions was tested at room temperature, in a 12h period. In the work, in all cases, only one main degradation product, salicylic acid, was found. What is more, the work revealed that the degradation of aspirin in the tested organic solutions yields apparent second-order kinetics. The study also demonstrated that acetonitrile and 1,4-dioxane turned out to be the most stable solvents, and an above 80% of initial concentration of acetylsalicylic acid was found in this case. Furthermore, the most popular analytical solvents, methanol and ethanol, were found to be very unstable media. Herein, below 40% of initial concentration of acetylsalicylic acid was seen after 12h. The obtained results were also compared with the degradation of acetylsalicylic acid in a water solution. In this situation, only about 25% of the analyzed compound was resolved to salicylic acid in the same time frame.
An increasing interest in determination of various macro- and microelements in medicinal plants has been observed. The majority of studies are carried out using one mineralization method without any optimization. The present study demonstrates that changes in mineralization parameters can significantly affect the recovery of the elements determined. In the study, the dried plant material was mineralized in 12 ways and iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn) levels were determined. The samples were mineralized in the dry or open microwave mode as well as 10 closed microwave modes. The influence of acid amounts, irradiation power and time, addition of hydrogen peroxide and perfluoric acid was examined. All parameters were shown to be critical — good efficiency was observed with larger amounts of acid. The determined content varied significantly in the same sample and were in the ranges (ug g−1): 46–136 (Fe), 1.4–11.8 (Cu), 4.0–11.3 (Ni), 15.4–53.8 (Zn) and 9.5–67.6 (Mn). Increased irradiation resulted in the loss of copper and zinc and better recovery of nickel. The results demonstrate that such determinations should include the mineralization optimization step.
Nowadays, chromatographic methods coupled
with mass spectrometry are the most commonly used tools
in metabolomics studies. These methods are currently
being developed and various techniques and strategies are
proposed for the profiling analysis of biological samples.
However, the most important thing used to maximize
the number of entities in the recorded profiles is the
optimization of sample preparation procedure and the data
acquisition method. Therefore, ultra high performance
liquid chromatography coupled with accurate quadrupoletime-
of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry was used for the
comparison of urine metabolomic profiles obtained by
the use of various spectral data acquisition methods. The
most often used method of registration of metabolomics
data acquisition – TOF (MS) was compared with the fast
polarity switching MS and auto MS/MS methods with the
use of multivariate chemometric analysis (PCA). In all the
cases both ionization mode (positive and negative) were
studied and the number of the identified compounds was
compared. Additionally, various urine sample preparation
procedures were tested and it was found that the addition
of organic solvents to the sample noticeably reduces the
number of entities in the registered profiles. It was also
noticed that the auto MS/MS method is the least efficient
way to register metabolomic profiles.
The lipophilicity of thirty-two novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors — 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine and 2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinoline derivatives was studied by thin layer chromatography. The analyzed compounds were chromatographed on RP-18, RP-8, RP-2, CN and NH2 stationary phases with dioxane — citric buffer pH 3.0 binary mobile phases containing different proportions of dioxane. RM values for pure water were extrapolated from the linear Soczewiński-Wachtmeister equation and six compounds with known literature log P values were used as reference calibration data set for computation of experimental log P values. The obtained results were compared with computationally calculated partition coefficients values (AlogPs, AClogP, AlogP, MlogP, KOWWIN, XlogP2, XlogP3) by PCA and significant differences between them were observed.
A new HPLC method was introduced and validated for simultaneous determination of perindopril and indapamide. Validation procedure included specificity, sensitivity, robustness, stability, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method was used for the dissolution test of perindopril and indapamide in three fixed-dose formulations. The dissolution procedure was optimized using different media, different pH of the buffer, surfactants, paddle speed and temperature. Similarity of dissolution profiles was estimated using different model-independent and model-dependent methods and, additionally, by principal component analysis (PCA). Also, some kinetic models were checked for dissolved amounts of drugs as a function of time.
The LBOZ criterion is an interesting approach for quantifying selectivity during spectrophotometric analysis by measuring the relative uncertainty increase caused by spectral overlapping. Unfortunately, no reference values for pharmaceuticals analysis in the UV region exist. The current paper presents an estimation of the LBOZ distribution as a random variable for binary and ternary drug mixtures. The estimation was done on a representative group of 170 diverse drug-like compounds. Results of the estimation were fitted to the beta and the Johnson distributions. The obtained parameters can be used to examine the “significance” of the spectral overlap by finding the p-value, interpreted as a chance to obtain higher uncertainty increase among the drugs.
It is well known that drugs can directly react with excipients. In addition, excipients can be a source of impurities that either directly react with drugs or catalyze their degradation. Thus, binary mixtures of three diuretics, torasemide, furosemide and amiloride with different excipients, i.e. citric acid anhydrous, povidone K25 (PVP), magnesium stearate (Mg stearate), lactose, D-mannitol, glycine, calcium hydrogen phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO4) and starch, were examined to detect interactions. High temperature and humidity or UV/VIS irradiation were applied as stressing conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR and NIR were used to adequately collect information. In addition, chemometric assessments of NIR signals with principal component analysis (PCA) and ANOVA were applied.
Between the excipients examined, lactose and starch did not show any interactions while citric acid, PVP, Mg stearate and glycine were peculiarly operative. Some of these interactions were shown without any stress, while others were caused or accelerated by high temperature and humidity, and less by UV/VIS light. Based on these results, potential mechanisms for the observed interactions were proposed Finally, we conclude that selection of appropriate excipients for torasemide, furosemide and amiloride is an important question to minimize their degradation processes, especially when new types of formulations are being manufactured.