This Article draws lessons from Italian history as to how the state may possibly intervene in economic crises without jeopardizing the economy or affecting competition. It first describes how and why Italy got to the point in the 1930s where the government had to save the financial system. That was accomplished by setting up a public financial holding company (IRI), which became the majority shareholder of banks and companies in the telecommunications, steel, shipping, engineering, and energy industries, among others. The so-called IRI formula has long been considered a model both in the European Union and outside it, with many countries setting up similar companies. Initially, the IRI performed well in Italy and acted as a market player. In the 1960s, however, its performance deteriorated under pressure from political parties. This degeneration combined with pressure from the European Union prompted Italy to gradually (or partially) privatize the state-owned companies, a process that ended only recently. Ironically, the pendulum is now swinging back. In preparation for the next crisis, Italy is currently planning to go “back to the state.” The Article presents different ways of public intervention in the economy and offers suggestions for future reforms.
Stress can have a lasting impact on the structure and function of brain circuitry that results in long-lasting changes in the behavior of an organism. Synaptic plasticity is the mechanism by which information is stored and maintained within individual synapses, neurons, and neuronal circuits to guide the behavior of an organism. Although these mechanisms allow the organism to adapt to its constantly evolving environment, not all of these adaptations are beneficial. Under prolonged bouts of physical or psychological stress, these mechanisms become dysregulated, and the connectivity between brain regions becomes unbalanced, resulting in pathological behaviors. In this review, we highlight the effects of stress on the structure and function of neurons within the mesocorticolimbic brain systems known to regulate mood and motivation. We then discuss the implications of these spine adaptations on neuronal activity and pathological behaviors implicated in mood disorders. Finally, we end by discussing recent brain imaging studies in human depression within the context of these basic findings to provide insight into the underlying mechanisms leading to neural dysfunction in depression.
Drawing from ethnographic, empirical, and historical /
cultural perspectives, we examine the extent to which visual aspects of music
contribute to the communication that takes place between performers and their
listeners. First, we introduce a framework for understanding how media and
genres shape aural and visual experiences of music. Second, we present case
studies of two performances, and describe the relation between visual and aural
aspects of performance. Third, we report empirical evidence that visual aspects
of performance reliably inﬂuence perceptions of musical structure (pitch related
features) and affective interpretations of music. Finally, we trace new and old
media trajectories of aural and visual dimensions of music, and highlight how
our conceptions, perceptions and appreciation of music are intertwined with
technological innovation and media deployment strategies.
Cytokine receptors are associated with tumor cell growth by increasing proliferation, metastasis and regulating self-renewal of cancer stem cells (SCs). There is a strong association between cytokine IL-8 receptor (CXCR1) over-expression and cells displaying SC characteristics. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) causes differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of the breast epithelium. hCG receptor (LHCGR) expression in breast tumors and in breast cancer cell lines is undetectable or low. In this study, our objective was to assess and compare the effects of hCG and a 15 amino acid hCG fragment of the hormone on mRNA expression of CXCR1 and LHCGR on normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10F) by real time RT-PCR after treatment with hCG or a hCG fragment for 15 days. Cell proliferation was also measured. hCG and the hCG fragment decreased cell proliferation in both groups. The compounds upregulated LHCGR expression and downregulated CXCR1 expression. It is possible to postulate that an increase of LHCGR mRNA seems to respond to the decrease of CXCR1 expression. These genes probably act synergistically to reduce the amount of cancer SCs in the mammary gland. Thereby, the use of hCG or the hCG fragment as a therapeutic or preventive tool should be considered.