This essay presents some preliminary thoughts about the linkages between current human rights universalism and the practice of violence in the form of wars and interventions. I draw three parallels that may help us think about the current wars on terror and in Iraq. The first parallel concerns the progress of liberal universalist thought from the Enlightenment period in which a concern for rights coexisted with the justifications for imperialism. In the current era the succeeding line of universalist thought is that of human rights which similarly coexists with the overt and tacit support for violence that deprives some humans of their lives.The second parallel concerns the use of national identity. In the imperial era, the justification for rights either given or withheld was closely linked to constructions of national identity. Similarly, today there is a resurgence of nationalist discourse in which the construction of U.S. national identity is used to justify the violence that is done against Iraqi citizens. This discourse which constructs the U.S. as ontologically civilized and the Iraqis as barbarians is used to justify the violence that is done to them.Finally, the last parallel concerns violence in general. During imperialism, the scrutiny for acts of violence was borne largely by the native. Because he was constructed as a barbarian, his violence was made far more obvious as further evidence of his lesser development. In the present circumstances, a similar scrutiny is borne by the Iraqi insurgent while the violence of the coalition forces remains veiled beneath euphemisms like collateral damage. The torture scandal at Abu-Ghraib presented an opportunity to reverse the gaze but because of its interpretation as an aberration that falls squarely outside the ``normal" and the failure to widen the debate to other violence, this opportunity was largely lost.These three parallels taken together suggest that the old liberal hegemonic order of imperialism with its conflicting narratives of rights and oppression has been carried forward and sublimated into a human rights regime. And human rights is now deployed to justify violence against ``human rights abusers." Because of this continuity, there is a need to create a new universalism born organically from the struggles of subordinated peoples that eliminates old-order imperialist justifications for the oppression of Others while claiming to support human rights.
The Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann (LSZ) technique has been used to calculate all τ -functions of the UN-sector of the Bronzan-Lee model. Using the prescription of Liossatos, the ZV → 0 limit has been carried out for the fourier transform of the τ-functions in the sector. These limiting functions τ̂α,LUN are then compared with the τ̂C,αUN functions derived from a composite model, proposed by the foregoing author, where V is considered to be a composite particle. It has been found that when the so called composite V-particle does not appear in the initial and the final states, these τ-functions coincide. On the other hand, the limiting values of some τ-functions differ from those of the composite model, when such particles appear in the final or initial states.
The relationship between Jacobi’s last multiplier and the Lagrangian of a second-order ordinary differential equation is quite well known. In this article we demonstrate the significance of the last multiplier in Hamiltonian theory by explicitly constructing the Hamiltonians of certain well known first-order systems of differential equations arising in biology.
Type 2 diabetes is common amongst Bangladeshis, and prevention strategies are needed. Little is known about the views of younger people concerning diabetes prevention and the risk factors. We aimed to explore the experience and views on the prevention of diabetes amongst young Bangladeshis in Tower Hamlets.
Semistructured interviews involving 40 young Bangladeshis.
Participants were aware of diabetes being a major health issue and its link with poor diet. Many had a relative with diabetes, and some had negative experiences, such as suffering poor control, complications, or hypoglycemia. Knowledge of diabetes was predominantly gleaned from school. Many felt that older generations were at higher risk due to lack of exercise and reliance on traditional diets. Participants recognized that the Westernized diets also increased the risk of diabetes. Views on prevention of diabetes were strong, including increasing diabetes awareness in schools, rewards for healthier lifestyles, reducing costs of exercise, reducing advertising of poorly nutritious foods, and tackling the proliferation of fast food outlets.
Young Bangladeshi people showed good knowledge of diabetes and its causes and have cogent ideas on its prevention. The views of young people should be considered when developing diabetes prevention strategies at the local and national level.
“In situ crystallization” is a technique, which is used to crystallize the materials, which are liquid at ambient conditions, on the single crystal X-ray diffractometer. This technique has been utilized to study crystal structures of a number of liquids, gases and mixtures of liquids and gases in the past. In this manuscript, we describe the formation of cocrystals of a few cresols with aniline and fluoroanilines using this technique. Different pairs of cresol and aniline/fluoroaniline resulted into various cocrystals, which display different crystalline motifs involving strong O–H···N, N–H···O hydrogen bonds along with weak C–H···O and C–H···F hydrogen bonds. The observed differences in crystal packing indicate that the role of weak hydrogen bonds in these systems is significant and need to be considered.
Optical studies have been carried out on two fluorinated isothiocyanato nematic liquid crystal (LC) compounds 4′-butylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl and 4′-pentylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocynatobiphenyl. Transition temperatures of the two samples were confirmed using a polarizing microscope. The two LC compounds were found to exhibit fairly high clearing temperatures. Measurements of refractive indices of the two compounds were done by using thin prism method with He-Ne laser beam of wavelength 630 nm. Birefringence of the two LC compounds was calculated from the measured refractive indices. Both the compounds are found to display fairly high values of birefringence. Validation of a modified four-parameter model, based on Vuks equation describing the temperature dependence of refractive indices of the two liquid crystals, is also presented in this paper. The model is validated by fitting the experimentally measured values of refractive indices, birefringence and average refractive indices of the two nematic LCs with the theoretical values. In this paper, the calculation of order parameters of the LCs is presented by using two methods: direct extrapolation method based solely on the birefringence data and by using modified Vuks method based on Haller’s extrapolation. As observed from the obtained results, this procedure of calculating order parameter gives very reasonable results.
Failure analysis of laminated composite plates for different mechanical, thermo mechanical and hygro-thermo mechanical loads for different ply thicknesses, stacking sequences, fiber orientation angles and composite material systems is presented in the paper. A comparative study of different failure theories is also presented in the paper. The effect of fiber orientation angles on the first ply failure load is also studied. A hybrid composite laminate is developed based on the first ply failure load which minimizes weight and cost. The last ply failure load based on fully discounted method is calculated for different stacking sequences. An optimum composite material system and laminate layup is studied for a targeted strength ratio which minimizes weight.