Titania-coated silica microspheres containing between 0.5 and 3.0 theoretical layers of TiO2 have been prepared by homogeneous precipitation of TiCl3. All these xTiO2-SiO2 materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, FT-Raman and XPS. Calcination of silica-supported precipitates leads to the formation of titanium dioxide. TiO2 species are distributed on the surface as small anatase crystals and possess a titania-like behaviour with a much better performance than bulk TiO2 for the photodegradation of phenol. Crystal size of titania particles is critical for optimum performance of the catalyst since it determines the appropriate surface exposure of titanium sites.
Standard drug delivery systems for cancer treatment usually comprise a device with a specific size and shape (depending on the type of cancer that has to be treated), which is composed by a biodegradable compound with a chemotherapeutic entrapped within it. This device should have a molecule (mainly a protein) bound to its surface to target only cancer cells. On the contrary, supercritical fluids (SCF) have been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for creating drug delivery systems or for extracting drugs from natural sources. This review explains the potential of SCFs for cancer therapies by studying the current uses of the different high-pressure processes that can be useful for this medical treatment, such as the development of new drug delivery systems (with their drug release) or the extraction of chemotherapeutics from a vegetal matrix.
For a long time now, it is known that an infinite number of compounds can be obtained from microalgae due to their promising composition. This fact is used by several companies to produce at medium-scale different high value products such as carotenoids. Furthermore, this last decade research in this topic has significantly increased given the potential solution these microorganisms present to meet World environmental agreements regarding CO2 emissions. However, the culture of large-scale microalgae in order to obtain products which are required in huge quantities (e.g., oil for manufacturing biodiesel) and at the same time removing pollutants appeared as a difficult task due to the great number of variables that must be taken into account. The photobioreactor design for cultivating the microalgae is perhaps the most important task, but there are other bottle-necks, such as the harvesting system, cleaning system, control system, the chosen microalgae, and the extraction of products from the microalgae. This review focuses on around 200 patents covering microalgae technology, from different photobioreactors designs to microalgae applications, in order to construct a perfect large-scale facility removing CO2 in the process.
Information about the prevalence of helminth parasites of the yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, in the Iberian Peninsula is almost non-existent and there is no reliable data reported from Spain. Fourteen A. flavicollis from the Erro River valley (Navarre, Spain) were examined for endoparasites, between February 2001 and July 2002. Thirteen specimens (92.9 %) of the total sample were parasitized by at least one of the following six helminth species: one trematode (Corrigia vitta), one cestode (Taenia parva larvae) and four nematodes (Trichuris muris, Calodium hepaticum, Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Syphacia stroma). This is the first report about the helminthfauna of A. flavicollis in the Iberian Peninsula. Nevertheless, a larger number of hosts should be analysed to complete these preliminary results and to adequately characterize the helminth community of this rodent. The finding of C. hepaticum, the causative agent of human capillarosis, stands out.
In this work the results on the first use of an activated composite membrane (ACM) containing Cyanex 923 for the extraction and transport of phenol are presented. A new dense layer-ACM configuration constituted by piperazine showed better stability than that prepared with 1,3-phenylenediamine. The effects of several parameters on the transport of phenol such as feed phase pH, carrier concentration and stripping phase composition were evaluated. The performance of the membrane was also evaluated during continuous additions of phenol and for a long period of time, observing the same rate of extraction and reextraction. Moreover, phenol transport was evaluated starting from synthetic wastewater of resin production plants type. The results exhibit the potential use of ACMs in the elimination and transport of organic species, even when analyte is initially found in complex solutions.
To evaluate the strength of association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19.
Secondary analysis of a multinational, cohort study on all consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020 from 73 centers from 22 different countries. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite adverse fetal outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion (pregnancy loss before 22 weeks of gestations), stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after 22 weeks of gestation), neonatal death (death of a live-born infant within the first 28 days of life), and perinatal death (either stillbirth or neonatal death). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate parameters independently associated with the primary outcome. Logistic regression was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI).
Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 30.6±9.5 weeks, with 8.0% of women being diagnosed in the first, 22.2% in the second and 69.8% in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were six miscarriage (2.3%), six intrauterine device (IUD) (2.3) and 5 (2.0%) neonatal deaths, with an overall rate of perinatal death of 4.2% (11/265), thus resulting into 17 cases experiencing and 226 not experiencing composite adverse fetal outcome. Neither stillbirths nor neonatal deaths had congenital anomalies found at antenatal or postnatal evaluation. Furthermore, none of the cases experiencing IUD had signs of impending demise at arterial or venous Doppler. Neonatal deaths were all considered as prematurity-related adverse events. Of the 250 live-born neonates, one (0.4%) was found positive at RT-PCR pharyngeal swabs performed after delivery. The mother was tested positive during the third trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was asymptomatic and had negative RT-PCR test after 14 days of life. At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8–0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09–1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3–7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome.
Early gestational age at infection, maternal ventilatory supports and low birthweight are the main determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes in fetuses with maternal COVID-19 infection. Conversely, the risk of vertical transmission seems negligible.