Studies on epithelial cells often require the transient expression of exogenous proteins in polarized epithelial cells. However, the major limitation of this approach has been the difficulty of obtaining transient gene expression in polarized epithelial cell cultures. We report here on the application of a polyethylenimine (PEI)/DNA/adenovirus system for efficient transient gene expression in mammary epithelial cells. Based on luciferase assay and FACScan analysis the PEI/DNA/adenovirus system is shown to be an effective and simple method for transfecting epithelial cells.
Realized gains from selection for resistance to the fungal disease fusiform rust caused by Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme were estimated using data from five field trials planted on large rectangular plots in high rust-hazard sites. These five realized gain trials, planted as a Best Management Practices study (BMP), compared resistant and susceptible mixtures of families from the first-generation breeding population of slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) in southeastern North America. Analyses of variance (Proc Mixed using REML in SAS), conducted to test the significance of realized gains and interactions contrasting resistant with susceptible seedlots, detected important and highly significant realized gains in both rust resistance and mid-rotation yield. Significant gains were obtained for rust resistance at age 5 and stand yield at age 16 with high stability across sites and across silvicultural treatments, indicating that gains in rust resistance and the associated influence on gains in stand yield were consistent under many environmental conditions. Additionally, the values of realized gains in stand yield steadily increased with age, primarily due to increased rust associated mortality with age in the susceptible material. The 25% realized gain for rust resistant material compared to rust susceptible material obtained at age 16 was conservatively extrapolated to a 25-year-old rotation-age gain of 51.4 m3 ha-1 (735 feet3 acre-1) in inside-bark volume.
This article summarizes the correlation procedures developed for IUPAC Project 2012-040-1-100 [Reference correlations for the thermal conductivity and viscosity of fluids over extended range of conditions (vapor, liquid and supercritical regions)]. This project is focused on the development of wide-range reference correlations for the thermal conductivity and viscosity of fluids that incorporate as much theoretical knowledge of these properties as possible. The thermal conductivity and viscosity correlations developed here for pure fluids are functions of temperature and density. The best available equations of state for a given fluid are used to calculate the thermodynamic properties required for these correlations, often from measured temperatures and pressures. The correlation methodology developed during this project has been applied to hexane in this report but can be applied to any pure fluid with a reliable equation of state and reliable data for the thermal conductivity and viscosity over a significant range of temperatures and densities.
A radiochemical method for producing 82Se sources with an ultra-low level of contamination of natural radionuclides (40K, decay products of 232Th and 238U) has been developed based on cation-exchange chromatographic purification with reverse removal of impurities. It includes chromatographic separation (purification), reduction, conditioning (which includes decantation, centrifugation, washing, grinding, and drying), and 82Se foil production. The conditioning stage, during which highly dispersed elemental selenium is obtained by the reduction of purified selenious acid (H2SeO3) with sulfur dioxide (SO2) represents the crucial step in the preparation of radiopure 82Se samples. The natural selenium (600 g) was first produced in this procedure in order to refine the method. The technique developed was then used to produce 2.5 kg of radiopure enriched selenium (82Se). The produced 82Se samples were wrapped in polyethylene (12 μm thick) and radionuclides present in the sample were analyzed with the BiPo-3 detector. The radiopurity of the plastic materials (chromatographic column material and polypropylene chemical vessels), which were used at all stages, was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radiopurity of the 82Se foils was checked by measurements with the BiPo-3 spectrometer, which confirmed the high purity of the final product. The measured contamination level for 208Tl was 8–54 μBq/kg, and for 214Bi the detection limit of 600 μBq/kg has been reached.