Surface plasmons provide a pathway to efficiently absorb and confine light in metallic nanostructures, thereby bridging photonics to the nano scale. The decay of surface plasmons generates energetic ‘hot’ carriers, which can drive chemical reactions or be injected into semiconductors for nano-scale photochemical or photovoltaic energy conversion. Novel plasmonic hot carrier devices and architectures continue to be demonstrated, but the complexity of the underlying processes make a complete microscopic understanding of all the mechanisms and design considerations for such devices extremely challenging.Here,we review the theoretical and computational efforts to understand and model plasmonic hot carrier devices.We split the problem into three steps: hot carrier generation, transport and collection, and review theoretical approaches with the appropriate level of detail for each step along with their predictions.We identify the key advances necessary to complete the microscopic mechanistic picture and facilitate the design of the next generation of devices and materials for plasmonic energy conversion.
Background: Phenobarbital is one of the oldest, cheapest
and easily available cerebroprotective drugs for the
hypoxic brain. However, its potential and various actions
have not been fully explored.
Aim: To evaluate the effects of Phenobarbital on levels
of oxidants and anti-oxidants in term and near term neonates
with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.
Methods: Design–randomized controlled trial. Setting–tertiary care referral perinatal centre. Procedure–asphyxiated neonates (gestation ≥34 weeks) with HIE
were randomized to receive Phenobarbital 20 mg/kg IV
within first six hours of life or to control group. CSF levels
of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD),
glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and blood levels of vitamins
A and E were estimated at 10–12 hours of age.
Results: CSF levels of MDA, SOD, GPx and blood levels
of vitamins A and E were significantly lower in the Phenobarbital
group (p<0.001). There was a trend towards
lower levels of CSF MDA, SOD, GPx and blood vitamins
A and E in babies with normal outcome as compared to
babies with adverse outcome (death or neurologically
abnormal at discharge).
Conclusion: Phenobarbital in the dose of 20 mg/kg IV
given within 6 hours of life in term and near-term neonates
with HIE, was associated with a decrease in lipid
peroxides, anti-oxidant enzymes and anti-oxidant
Population specific data and influence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism on insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in Indian children is lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and their correlation with age, gender, pubertal status and thyroid functions.
A total of 840 apparently healthy school girls aged 6–18 years, were recruited for the study and underwent assessment of height, weight, body mass index, pubertal status and serum T3, T4, TSH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio.
The mean serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were 381.8±240.5 ng/mL, 4.19±2.08 μg/mL and 40.5±37.2%, respectively. The serum IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly (p<0.0001) at 11 years followed by a steady yet non-significant rise till 16 years of age. A similar pattern was observed for IGFBP-3 showing a steep rise at 12 years and peaking at 16 years. Likewise, serum levels of IGF-1 and molar ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3 increased significantly with pubertal maturation from stage 1 to 3 and were higher in overweight girls compared to normal weight and obese girls. The growth factors were no different in girls with or without subclinical hypothyroidism.
There was no significant impact of age on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in pre-pubertal girls. A sudden marked increase at 11 years followed by a gradual rise in growth factors till 16 years is indicative of pubertal initiation and maturation. Subclinical hypothyroidism did not influence growth factors in girls.