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  • Author: A. Noguera, x
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The reciprocity objection is one of the most widespread criticisms against Basic Income (BI). In this article I challenge the consistency between the reciprocity principle and the preferred policy options of left reciprocity theorists. I argue that any consistent policy design for a reciprocity theory should satisfy two conditions: 1. Everyone who benefits from social resources contributes relevantly (reciprocally) to society’s efforts; and 2. Everyone who contributes relevantly to society benefits from social resources. BI is accused by reciprocity theorists of failing to satisfy Condition 1. But, surprisingly, their preferred policy pack also fails to satisfy Condition 1, and seems badly prepared to satisfy Condition 2. Significantly, left reciprocity theorists reject those options that would satisfy both conditions. I suggest that other normative values and intuitions may explain that inconsistency and indicate that the reciprocity objection to BI is wrong for principled reasons.


Background:Kidney stones have become increasingly prevalent in the developed countries over the past 100 years. The incidence of urolithiasis in a population depends on the geographical area, racial distribution, socio-economic status and dietary habits. During the past decades, these factors have changed affecting the incidence and also the chemical composition of calculi; nowadays in our region, the most common stones composition is calcium oxalate. The identification of the calculi composition enables superior treatment, lower (decreased) cost and a better quality of life for the patients.

Methods:We analyzed the composition and the evolution of all of the cases concerning calculi received at Biochemical Clinical Analysis Laboratory from 2007 to 2010, using Interferometry with Fourier transformation (FTIR). The relationship between composition, gender and age was studied for an aleatory group in 2010 (n=657, 431 men and 226 women).

Results:The stone composition obtained was mixtures 24.7% and only one component 75.3%. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) 41.5%, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) 7.6%, anhydrous uric acid (AUA) 12.4%, uric acid dehydrate (UAD) 6.7%, urates 1.4%, carbonate-apatite (CA) 2.9%, and others 2.8%. The male to female ratio was 1.9 and the largest number of stones was found in patients between the ages of 40 and 49, for both men and women.

Conclusions:The most common composition (relative percentage) was COM, mixtures and AUA. Presence of calculi is more common in men than in women with the exception of carbonate apatite stones. Stones follow a Gaussian distribution throughout the lifetime of a patient, with particular incidence in those between 40 to 49 years old.


The Brazilian porcupine Coendou prehensilis is distributed from northwestern South America to northeastern Paraguay and northwestern Argentina. In Colombia, it is present mainly in the Caribbean, the eastern Llanos and the Andean regions, which correspond to six of the biogeographical provinces of the country. Its presence in the Colombian Amazon region has been suggested based on records from neighboring countries such as Ecuador, Venezuela and Brazil. However, no voucher specimens or additional evidence that corroborates the presence of the species in that region of Colombia is known. Based on the review of specimens deposited in Colombian collections, analyses of photographic records, and the literature, the presence of the species in the Colombian Amazon is confirmed, and its distribution in the country updated. Overall, we found 36 records of C. prehensilis in Colombia, of which seven correspond to the Colombian Amazon (four photographic records and three specimens). A genetic analysis based on cytochrome-b suggests that this species is genetically uniform throughout its distributional range. These new records make C. prehensilis the most widespread species of the genus among natural regions and biogeographic provinces of Colombia. Other species are restricted to one or two provinces.

Truth, Power, and the Republic at Risk