Understanding structural changes in the brain that are caused by a particular disease is a major goal of neuroimaging research. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) comprises a collection of tools that can be used to understand complex disease efxcfects across the brain. We discuss several important issues that must be considered when analyzing data from neuroimaging studies using MVPA. In particular, we focus on the consequences of confounding by non-imaging variables such as age and sex on the results of MVPA. After reviewing current practice to address confounding in neuroimaging studies, we propose an alternative approach based on inverse probability weighting. Although the proposed method is motivated by neuroimaging applications, it is broadly applicable to many problems in machine learning and predictive modeling. We demonstrate the advantages of our approach on simulated and real data examples.
We developed a new apparatus for the study of electrochemical properties of the heaviest elements. The apparatus is based on a flow electrolytic cell combined with column chromatography. Glassy-carbon fibers modified with Nafion perfluorinated cation-exchange resin are used as a working electrode as well as a cation-exchanger. The elution behavior of 139Ce with the number of 1010 atoms in 0.1 M ammonium α-hydroxyisobutyric acid solution from the column electrode was investigated at the applied potentials of 0.2–1.0 V versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode in 1.0 M LiCl. It was found that 139Ce3+ is successfully oxidized to 139Ce4+ even with tracer concentration at around the redox potential determined by cyclic voltammetry for the macro amounts of Ce with 1017 atoms (10−3 M). The present oxidation reaction and separation of Ce4+ was accomplished within a few minutes.
Trivalent actinides Am(III), Cm(III), and Cf(III) were successfully separated for the first time using capillary electrophoresis in 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid/acetic acid. It was found that the ionic radius was primarily important for separation of trivalent actinides as well as lanthanides in this condition. The stability constants of the Am(III) complexes with 2-hydroxyisobutyrate were estimated using the correlations between the molar fraction ratio of lanthanides and their ionic radii.
For the solvent extraction experiment on element 104 (Rf), solvent extraction of Zr and Hf as its homologues was performed in tributylphosphate (TBP)/hydrochloric acid (HCl) system using the carrier-free radiotracers 88Zr and 175Hf. Time dependences of the distribution ratios of Zr and Hf were investigated using 6.1 and 10.0M HCl and 0.5 and 2.0M TBP benzene solutions. The distribution ratios in equilibrium were determined for these elements as a function of HCl concentrations in the range of 4.1-10.2M. We found that the neutral chloride complexes of Zr and Hf were formed and extracted into the organic phase within 20 min in HCl with a concentration higher than 6 M. From the results, we propose that solvent extraction of Rf from 4-8M HCl into 2.0M TBP benzene is suitable for investigating the chloride complexation properties of Rf. In addition, for the development of the rapid liquid-liquid extraction apparatus, three types of microchannel devices, namely, a micro reactor, capillary tube and micro-chemical chip, were tested as a mixing-solution part in the apparatus. The chemical reactions of Zr and Hf in the extraction were found to be fast only when using the microchemical chip, which is important for investigations with the 68-s 261Rf.
We have produced 90mNb and 99mTc in the reactions of natZr(p,xn)90mNb and 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo, followed by disintegration to 99mTc, respectively, and measured the half-lives of these nuclides by using a reference source method. In order to determine the short half-lives of 90mNb precisely, an on-line gas-jet system has been employed. As a result, the half-lives of these nuclides were determined with good precision on the order of magnitude of 0.1%.