The surface sorption process of Eu(III) onto smectite and kaolinite was investigated by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in the trace concentration range. The experiments were performed in 0.025 M and 0.45 M NaClO4. The sorption process of Eu(III) onto smectite was obtained by TRLFS under atmospheric conditions and in absence of CO2. The pH was varied between 3.5 and 9 at a fixed metal ion concentration of 3.3 × 10−6 mol/L Eu(III). At low pH (< 4) the metal ion keeps its complete hydration sphere indicating outer-sphere complexation. With increasing pH the formation of an inner-sphere Eu(III) surface complex was observed. The differences in the spectra and the fluorescence emission lifetimes of the surface sorbed Eu(III) in presence and absence of carbonate indicate the formation of ternary clay/Eu(III)/carbonate complexes. The different europium/clay surface complexes were characterized by their fluorescence emission spectra (5D0 → 7F1/5D0 → 7F2 intensity ratio) and their fluorescence emission lifetime.
Achieving system-level dependability is a demanding task. The
manifold requirements and dependability threats can no longer be
statically addressed at individual abstraction layers. Instead, all
components of future multi-processor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) have to
contribute to this common goal in an adaptive manner.
In this paper we target a generic heterogeneous MPSoC that combines
general purpose processors along with dedicated application-specific
hard-wired accelerators, fine-grained reconfigurable processors, and
coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures. We present different
reactive and proactive measures at the layers of the
runtime system (online resource management), system architecture
(global communication), micro architecture (individual tiles), and
gate netlist (tile-internal circuits) to address dependability