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  • Author: A.E. Hughes, x
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Theories of ionic association due to BJERRUM, Fuoss and KRAUS, and RAMSEY are briefly reviewed. A statistical theory is developed and shown to be not in conflict with them or with recent experimental results.


Atomic sites with multiple substituents are common in minerals, and correct site assignment of substituents in structure refinement is of fundamental importance. Substituents must be assigned to particular sites to fit the observed site scattering and chemical analysis, but the assignments are rarely made with mathematical rigor. We propose a quadratic programming approach to calculating optimal site assignments, thereby providing crystallographers with a mathematically robust starting point for the determination of site occupancies. Our program, OCCQP, implements this approach within the widely used MATLAB programming environment. User-defined weights may be assigned to the structural formula, site scattering, and bond-valence sums. The program is useful for evaluation of site occupancies in newly refined structures and re-evaluation of previously published structures with ad hoc site assignments.


Objective: To determine the effects of a home-based strength training (HBST) intervention on insulin sensitivity (SI), compensatory acute insulin response and β-cell function, body composition measures, and maximum strength in obese Latino boys.

Methods: A total of 26 obese Latino males aged between 14 and 18 years were randomized to either a twice-weekly (n=15) or a control group (C; n=15) for 16 weeks. HBST for 16 weeks, composed of two 1-h sessions per week. Outcome measures were assessed pre-and post-intervention/control condition and included SI, acute insulin response to glucose (AIR) and disposition index (DI), fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, body composition using waist-hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan, blood pressure, and strength by 1-repetition maximum. A repeated measures GLM was used to assess differences in changes in outcome measures, between the C and the HBST groups.

Results: There were no significant overall intervention effects on any of the outcome variables (p<0.05).

Conclusion: These results suggest that an HBST does not improve SI, maximal strength or decrease adiposity in obese Latino boys.


We present a new calibration for the determination of the iron oxidation state in silicate glasses by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with the “flank method.” This method is based on the changes in both intensity and wavelength of the FeLα and FeLβ X-ray emission lines with iron oxidation state. The flank method utilizes the maximum difference for the FeLα and FeLβ spectra observed at the peak flanks between different standard materials, which quantitatively correlates with the Fe2+ content. Provided that this correlation is calibrated on reference materials, the Fe2+/ΣFe ratio can be determined for samples with known total Fe content. Two synthetic Fe-rich ferric and ferrous garnet end-members, i.e., andradite and almandine, were used to identify the FeLα and FeLβ flank method measuring positions that were then applied to the measurement of a variety of silicate glasses with known Fe2+/ΣFe ratio (ranging from 0.2 to 1.0). The measured intensity ratio of FeLβ over FeLα at these flank positions (Lβ/Lα) is a linear function of the Fe2+content (in wt%). A single linear trend can be established for both garnets and silicate glasses with 4–18 wt% FeOT (total iron expressed as FeO). In glasses with up to 18 wt% FeOT and 15 wt% TiO2, no systematic compositional (matrix) effects were observed. A possible influence of Ti on the Fe2+ determination has only been observed in one high-Ti glass with ~25 wt% TiO2, a content that is not typical for natural terrestrial silicate melts. The accuracy of the Fe2+/ΣFe determination, which depends on both the Fe2+ content determined with the flank method and on the total Fe content, is estimated to be within ±0.1 for silicate glasses with FeOT > 5 wt% and within ±0.3 for silicate glasses with low FeOT ≤ 5 wt%. The application of the flank method on silicate glasses requires minimization of the EPMA beam damage that can be successfully achieved by continuous movement of the sample stage under the electron beam during analysis, e.g., with a speed of 2 μm/s.


The iron oxidation state in silicate melts is important for understanding their physical properties, although it is most often used to estimate the oxygen fugacity of magmatic systems. Often high spatial resolution analyses are required, yet the available techniques, such as μrXANES and μMössbauer, require synchrotron access. The flank method is an electron probe technique with the potential to measure Fe oxidation state at high spatial resolution but requires careful method development to reduce errors related to sample damage, especially for hydrous glasses. The intensity ratios derived from measurements on the flanks of FeLα and FeLβ X-rays (FeLβf/FeLαf) over a time interval (time-dependent ratio flank method) can be extrapolated to their initial values at the onset of analysis. We have developed and calibrated this new method using silicate glasses with a wide range of compositions (43–78 wt% SiO2, 0–10 wt% H2O, and 2–18 wt% FeOT, which is all Fe reported as FeO), including 68 glasses with known Fe oxidation state. The Fe oxidation state (Fe2+/FeT) of hydrous (0–4 wt% H2O) basaltic (43–56 wt% SiO2) and peralkaline (70–76 wt% SiO2) glasses with FeOT > 5 wt% can be quantified with a precision of ±0.03 (10 wt% FeOT and 0.5 Fe2+/FeT) and accuracy of ±0.1. We find basaltic and peralkaline glasses each require a different calibration curve and analysis at different spatial resolutions (~20 and ~60 μm diameter regions, respectively). A further 49 synthetic glasses were used to investigate the compositional controls on redox changes during electron beam irradiation, where we found that the direction of redox change is sensitive to glass composition. Anhydrous alkali-poor glasses become reduced during analysis, while hydrous and/or alkali-rich glasses become oxidized by the formation of magnetite nanolites identified using Raman spectroscopy. The rate of reduction is controlled by the initial oxidation state, whereas the rate of oxidation is controlled by SiO2, Fe, and H2O content.