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  • Author: Aleksandar Dimic x
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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and destruction of joint cartilage and bone. Different cytokines play important role in the processes that cause articular destruction and extra-articular manifestations in RA. The contribution of cytokines representing the Th1 (INF-γ), Th2 (IL-4) and IL-17A to the pathogenesis of early RA and bone mineral density (BMD) loss in still poorly understood. Serum samples of 38 early RA patients were evaluated for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) and for the tested cytokines (IL-17A, IL-4 and INF-γ). BMD was evaluated by dualenergyX-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Disease activity score (DAS28) calculation was assessed for all patients. Control serum samples were obtained from 34 healthy volunteers. The levels of tested cytokines were significantly higher (IL-17A, p<0.001; INF-γ, P<0.001; IL-4, P<0.01) in patients with early RA, compared to the healthy controls. In early RA patients, strong correlation of serum IL-17A was found with DAS28, ESR and CRP. Also, a significant negative correlation was found between serum INF-γ levels and the DAS28 score. Significantly positive correlation of BMD values and CRP, DAS28 IL-17A were also demonstrated. DXA analysis revealed that the most common site for osteoporosis was the lumbar spine followed by the femoral neck. BMD values significantly correlated with CRP, DAS28 score and IL-17A serum levels. The mean serum IL-17A levels, in patients with early RA, corresponded with disease activity, severity and BMD loss, indicating the potential usefulness of serum IL-17A in defining the disease activity and bone remodeling.

Abstract

Only few studies have reported that bone fracture risk is decreased in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women treated with statin therapy. Because of a lack of longitudinal studies on the effect of statins on bones, the aim of our investigation was to estimate the simvastatin therapy effects on bone mineral density in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Our investigation was carried out on 53 postmenopausal women with hypercholesterolemia. The women included in the study were divided into two groups. Group 1 was comprised of women with two or more (n=32) atherosclerosis risk factors, whereas group 2 had women with less than two (n=21) of these risk factors. All the women included in the study were placed on a hypocholesterolemic diet and the women in group 1 were additionally treated with 20 mg of simvastatin daily. The parameters of lipid status, body mass index, and L2–L4 densitometry were determined at baseline and then after one year. The simvastatin-treated group showed significant improvement of lipid parameters and increased bone mineral density. Finally, changes in bone mineral density between the groups showed significant differences (p<0.05). Although our investigation was carried out on a small group, our results showed a positive effect of the simvastatin therapy on the bone mineral density of postmenopausal women.

Abstract

Only few studies have reported that bone fracture risk is decreased in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women treated with statin therapy. Because of a lack of longitudinal studies on the effect of statins on bones, the aim of our investigation was to estimate the simvastatin therapy effects on bone mineral density in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Our investigation was carried out on 53 postmenopausal women with hypercholesterolemia. The women included in the study were divided into two groups. Group 1 was comprised of women with two or more (n=32) atherosclerosis risk factors, whereas group 2 had women with less than two (n=21) of these risk factors. All the women included in the study were placed on a hypocholesterolemic diet and the women in group 1 were additionally treated with 20 mg of simvastatin daily. The parameters of lipid status, body mass index, and L2–L4 densitometry were determined at baseline and then after one year. The simvastatin-treated group showed significant improvement of lipid parameters and increased bone mineral density. Finally, changes in bone mineral density between the groups showed significant differences (p<0.05). Although our investigation was carried out on a small group, our results showed a positive effect of the simvastatin therapy on the bone mineral density of postmenopausal women.

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to examine the relation between bone density and certain parameters of lipid status in postmenopausal women. The research involved 300 women referred to densitometric examination as they belonged to the risk group of postmenopausal women. All the examinees had the following biochemical parameters determined: total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, glycemia, serum Ca and P. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that each year of age, menopause duration, AH are significantly connected to risk increase for the appearance of osteopenia or osteoporosis. Increase in values of SBP, DBP, cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride are connected with significant risk increase for the appearance of osteopenia or osteoporosis. Patients with AH are connected to 11 times elevated risk for the appearance of osteopenia or osteoporosis, cigarette smoking increased the risk by seven times, physical inactivity even by 52 times, CVD in the family anamnesis by eight times, and osteoporosis in the family anamnesis is connected to the risk by four times. In our research, atherogenic lipoproteins negatively correlate with lumbar bone density. Disturbed lipide status is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but also a risk factor for the appearance of osteoporosis.

Abstract

Early diagnosis of osteoporosis and estimation of subjects that are at high risk for fracture, is neccesary for osteoporosis treatment. Dual-energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) is a modern method for bone mineral density (BMD) evaluation. However, along BMD, clinical risk factors may significantly influence fracture development. Therefore, FRAX algorithm was designed for the assessment of a ten-year risk for serious osteoporotic fractures (SOF), as well as hip fractures. In the current study, we tried to evaluate the possible lumbal spine and hip BMD influence on ten year risk for SOF and hip fractures and potential role of FRAX in predicting the therapy in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. We performed the study on 385 postmenopausal women. According to the DXA measurements, at the lumbal (L) spine (L1–L4) and hip (femor neck), patients were then classified as normal, osteopenic, or osteoporotic. BMD evaluation included the L spine and the hip (subgroup 1), and only on the L spine (subgroup 2). By filling up the FRAX questionnaire, a ten-year risk for SOF fracture and hip fracture was calculated. BMD evaluation, in complete patient’s group and in subgroup 1, resulted in the highest number of osteoporosis (61.04%, 48.08%, retrospectively), while ospeopenia was a main finding in subgroup 2. In the subgroup 1, a high risk for SOF and hip fracture was detected in 16.45% and with high risk for hip fracture in 11.38% subjects. In subgroup 2, only high risk for hip fracture was observed in 3.16% subjects, indicating the active medicament treatment. Simultaneously, correlation of BMD results with FRAX values for SOF and hip fracture, showed significant negative correlation (p<0.001). Obtained results showed significant role of femur neck BMD evaluation in predicting the future factors, which may, together with FRAX analysis, improve the therapy approach in postmenopausal women with ospeopenia.

Abstract

The advanced development of additive technologies over the past years led to the fact that parts made by these technologies have been increasingly used in the most diverse engineering applications. One of the most famous and the most applied additive technology is 3D printing. In this paper the influence of the material type on the operational characteristics of spur gears manufactured by the 3D printing technology is analyzed, after the experimental testing performed on a back to back gear test rig, in the predefined laboratory conditions.

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to examine the correlation between the total risk of cardiovascular events, determined by the SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) system, and bone density in postmenopausal women. Examinees and method: The research involved 300 postmenopausal women. On the basis of bone density measurements, the participants were divided into three groups: group I — 84 examinees had osteoporosis, group II — 115 examinees had osteopenia, and group III — 101 examinees had normal bone mineral density (BMD). Results: Participants with high SCORE risk were statistically significantly older compared to low-risk women (60±3 vs. 55±5; p<0.001). They had significantly lower BMD and T scores (−1.09±0.94 vs. −2.86±0.63; p<0.001). Elevation of the SCORE risk by 1% caused a BMD decrease of 0.033 g/cm2(0.029 to 0.036 gr/cm2). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors caused a significant increase in the risk of decreasing BMD: every year of life by 20%, menopause duration by 26%, increase in systolic blood pressure (BP) by 1 mm Hg by 7%, increase in SCORE risk by 1% by 5.31 times, physical inactivity by 5.96 times, and osteoporosis in the family history by 3.91 times. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women who are at high risk for cardiovascular diseases have a lower BMD than those who are not at high risk for cardiovascular diseases.