Despite vaccination against avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV), cases of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) caused by aMPV field strains are frequently reported. Differences have been shown in the level of immune system stimulation after aMPV vaccination between turkeys that do and do not possess specific anti-aMPV maternally derived antibodies (MDA). The article describes the influence of MDA on the production of IFNγ in the spleen of aMPV-vaccinated turkeys.
Material and Methods
MDA+ or MDA− turkeys were vaccinated against TRT after hatching or on the 14th day of life. Spleen samples were collected 3, 7, and 14 days post vaccination for mononuclear cell isolation. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and the enzyme-linked immunospot assay were used to evaluate the levels of IFNγ gene expression, production, and secretion by cells within the spleen samples.
Increased IFNγ gene expression was noticed after vaccination only in birds that did not possess MDA or possessed MDA at relatively low level (MDA+ birds vaccinated at 14 DOL). In all birds, an increased percentage of T lymphocytes producing IFNγ was recorded. The proportion of anti-aMPV IFNγ-secreting cells was increased only in MDA− birds.
Besides having a protective role, MDA are known to interfere with vaccination efficacy. The analysis of our results confirms that MDA can decrease the level of immune system stimulation after aMPV vaccination of turkeys.
Introduction: The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Chlamydia spp. in poultry in Poland and estimate possible transmission to humans.
Material and Methods: Molecular diagnostic methods followed by sequencing and strain isolation were used on cloacal/faecal swabs collected from 182 apparently healthy poultry flocks including chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese. Serum samples obtained from people exposed (study group) and non-exposed (control group) to birds were tested by complement fixation test to acquire data on Chlamydia spp. antibody level.
Results: Overall, 15.9% of the tested flocks were Chlamydiaceae-positive and three Chlamydia spp. were identified. Predominant chlamydial agent found was C. gallinacea occurring in 65.5% of all positive poultry flocks and in 73.0% of positive chicken flocks. The sequences from four chicken flocks were assigned to C. abortus, whereas C. psittaci was confirmed in one duck and one goose flock. The analysis of ompA variable domains revealed at least nine genetic variants of C. gallinacea. Chlamydial antibodies were detected in 19.2% of human serum samples in the study group in comparison with 10.8% in the controls.
Conclusion: The obtained results confirm that chlamydiae are common among chicken flocks in Poland with C. gallinacea as a dominant species. Moreover, the presence of C. abortus in chickens is reported here for the first time. Further investigation should focus on possible zoonotic transmission of C. gallinacea and C. abortus as well as potential pathogenic effects on birds’ health and poultry production.