This paper proposes a new method of optimal number and location of TCSC using mixed integer non-linear programming approach in the deregulated electricity markets. Optimal number and location of TCSC controller can effectively enhance system loadability and their placement is a crucial issue due to their high cost. Since, in the competitive electricity environment more and more transactions are negotiated, which can compromise the system security. Therefore, it has become essential to determine secure transactions occurring in the new environment for better planning and management. The system loadability has been determined in a hybrid market model utilizing the secure transaction matrix. The proposed technique has been tested on IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (RTS).
One of the most important tasks of System Operator (SO) is to manage congestion as it threatens system security and may cause rise in electricity price resulting in market inefficiency. In corrective action congestion management schemes, it is crucial for SO to select the most sensitive generators to re-schedule their real and reactive powers and the loads to curtail in extreme congestion management. This paper proposed the selection of most sensitive generators and loads to re-schedule their generation and load curtailment based on the improved line flow sensitivity indices to manage congestion. The impact of slack bus on power flow sensitivity factors has been determined to encourage fair competition in the electricity markets. Effect of bilateral and multilateral transactions, and impact of multi-line congestion on congestion cost has also been studied. The generators reactive power bid has been modeled by a continuous differentiable tangent hyperbolic function. The proposed concept of congestion management has been tested on a practical 75-bus Indian system and IEEE-118-bus test system.
Pesticides are applied to protect crops from a variety of insect pests but their application cause toxicity to plants that results, among others, in reduction of protein as well as amino acid contents. The present study is aimed at observing the effect of seed pre-soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) on the protein and amino acid content in the leaves of Brassica juncea L. grown in soil that is amended with pesticide im-idacloprid (IMI). Soil amendment with IMI resulted in a decrease in the contents in leaves of total proteins and 21 amino acids studied. Seed soaking with 100 nM of EBL resulted in the recovery of total protein as well as amino acid contents in leaves, when compared with plants grown in only IMI amended soils.
Bacosides, constituents of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.), are reported to be potential therapeutic saponins in the cure of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, detailed mechanism for control of PD by bacosides is not well documented. PD has been reported to be caused by genetic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) leading to higher kinase activity that has been identified as a major cause of familial PD. The LRRK2 was thus proposed as an important marker in the pathogenesis of PD. This suggests that inhibition of LRRK2 holds promise as a potential treatment for PD. Our study focuses on the possible application of bacoside A constituents as potential inhibitors of LRRK2. In this work, we have carried out the in silico molecular docking studies of bacoside A constituents with LRRK2, proposing their role as an inhibitor in PD. The study has revealed the significant interactions between bacosaponin and LRRK2 having ten H-bonds at receptor-ligand site with binding affinity −7.5 kcal/mol. Hence, amongst the studied triglycosidic saponins, bacosaponin was analyzed to be a better ligand, proposing it to be a major constituent in inhibiting enzymatic activities of mutated LRRK2.
A novel design of compact, linearly polarized and low-profile planar antenna which is electrified by Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) resonator has been developed for multi-band applications of X-band spectrum. Radiating patch has been excited through two closely spaced longitudinal apertures of identical length but non-identical width, incorporated in SIW resonator. These apertures are responsible for multiple operating bands. The achieved fractional bandwidths are 1.29 %, 0.49 % and 1.60 % having resonant frequencies at 10.07 GHz, 10.85 GHz and 11.82 GHz respectively for |S11| ≤ -10 dB. The measured peak gain for first, second and third operating band is 6.54 dB, 6.86 dB and 7.68 dB respectively. The proposed antenna is a highly selective antenna for various applications of X-band microwave spectrum. This band has been particularly selected for military communication because it provides a trade-off between the characteristics (i. e. interference and rain resilience, data rates and remote coverage) of different frequency bands which are particularly suited to the needs of military users. It is very much suitable for secure communication i. e. to deny unauthorized access to sensitive unclassified information and prevent disruption of telecommunication. A comparative analysis of antenna’s parameters has been examined by Ansys HFSS and results are verified through experimental outcomes.