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  • Author: B. Riedl x
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Cure behavior of resins formulated with petroleum phenol replaced by 25 and 50 wt% of softwood bark-derived pyrolysis oils, using various formaldehyde to phenolics molar ratios and alkalinity content, was characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Kinetic parameters were obtained by the Borchart-Daniels method and the model-free (Vyazovkin) method. Resins containing up to 50% by wt of pyrolysis oils had slower cure kinetics and lower extent of condensation reaction compared to a neat laboratory made phenol-formaldehyde resin. However, very similar kinetic curing behavior to the standard resins was found for resols having 25% by wt of the petroleum phenol replaced by the pyrolysis oils. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) of cured pyrolysis oil-PF resins has been done under nitrogen and air environments at a constant heating rate. Thermal behavior of resins containing pyrolysis oils differed depending on the nature of the purge gas used in TG. Increasing the amount of pyrolysis oils decreased the thermal resistance of the experimental resins.


Wood adhesives derived from softwood bark pyrolysis oils (PO) and isocyanates (pMDI) have been developed for particleboards with a non-conventional blending system. The PO produced by the vacuum pyrolysis Pyrocycling™ process was used to replace between 30 and 40% by weight of the pMDI in a 4% adhesive-containing particleboard. Results showed that mechanical properties (IB, MOE and MOR) and thickness swelling of homogeneous boards exceeded the minimum requirements set by ANSI A208.1-1993 and ASTM 1037-96a standards. The study showed that pyrolysis oils can be mixed at ratios as high as 40% with pMDI and give acceptable interior grade particleboard properties. It was also shown that PO reduces panel to metal adhesion by 86%, in comparison to the control.


Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resols were prepared with different proportions of phenol replaced with softwood bark pyrolysis oils under varying formaldehyde to phenolics molar ratios and sodium hydroxide contents. Propylene carbonate (PC) was added to these adhesives to improve the cure of resins. The cure behavior was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Cure kinetics and amount of cure of the experimental resin were improved by adding PC to the resins. Low amounts of PC were used (less than 1.5% of PC on a resin solid basis) to avoid premature gelling of the adhesives. Results obtained by DSC suggested that PC catalyzed the resin cure reaction and also participated in resin cross-linking reactions. Low percentages of PC, 0.5 and 1% on a resin solid basis, were added to the experimental resins for bonding strandboards. These addition levels did not significantly improve mechanical properties of strandboards. It is concluded that a PC addition level of more than 1% by wt (on a resin solid basis) should be used to modify the mechanical properties of panels bonded with pyrolysis oil-PF resins.