The diffusion of 99Tc in granite was investigated with small-sized diffusion cells, composed of a radioactive source solution cell and a sampling cell. Water in the two cells was kept at the same level. 1 ml aliquots were taken from the sampling cells daily during the first 50 days, then at intervals of several days, and measured via liquid scintillation counting. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion of 99Tc and 3H in granite follows the one-dimensional diffusion equation when diffusion time is long enough (>100 days). The calculated average diffusion coefficient of 99Tc (1.4×10-12 m2/s) is about one half of that of 3H (3.2×10-12 m2/s).
Reference materials are important in the standardization of autoantibody testing and only a few are freely available for many known autoantibodies. Our goal was to develop three reference materials for antibodies to PML bodies/multiple nuclear dots (MND), antibodies to GW bodies (GWB), and antibodies to the nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA).
Reference materials for identifying autoantibodies to MND (MND-REF), GWB (GWB-REF), and NuMA (NuMA-REF) were obtained from three donors and validated independently by seven laboratories. The sera were characterized using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on HEp-2 cell substrates including two-color immunofluorescence using antigen-specific markers, western blot (WB), immunoprecipitation (IP), line immunoassay (LIA), addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoprecipitation–mass spectrometry (IP-MS).
MND-REF stained 6–20 discrete nuclear dots that colocalized with PML bodies. Antibodies to Sp100 and PML were detected by LIA and antibodies to Sp100 were also detected by ELISA. GWB-REF stained discrete cytoplasmic dots in interphase cells, which were confirmed to be GWB using two-color immunofluorescence. Anti-Ge-1 antibodies were identified in GWB-REF by ALBIA, IP, and IP-MS. All reference materials produced patterns at dilutions of 1:160 or greater. NuMA-REF produced fine speckled nuclear staining in interphase cells and staining of spindle fibers and spindle poles. The presence of antibodies to NuMA was verified by IP, WB, ALBIA, and IP-MS.
MND-REF, GWB-REF, and NuMA-REF are suitable reference materials for the corresponding antinuclear antibodies staining patterns and will be accessible to qualified laboratories.
This article reports viscosity data on a series of colloidal dispersions collected as part of the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise (INPBE). Data are reported for seven different fluids that include dispersions of metal-oxide nanoparticles in water, and in synthetic oil. These fluids, which are also referred to as ‘nanofluids,’ are currently being researched for their potential to function as heat transfer fluids. In a recently published paper from the INPBE study, thermal conductivity data from more than 30 laboratories around the world were reported and analyzed. Here, we examine the influence of particle shape and concentration on the viscosity of these same nanofluids and compare data to predictions from classical theories on suspension rheology.