Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family Malvaceae. Bacterial blight of cotton, also know as angular leaf spot, boll rot, and black leg, is a potentially destructive bacterial disease of cotton production. The disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith) Dye (synonyms Xanthomonas malvacearum (E.F. Sm) Dowson) is one of the most important and serious disease in cotton crop. Main objective of present research is to study the progress of the bacterial blight disease of cotton (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith) Dye, with relation to the environmental parameters. This is a common disease affecting the growth, development and yield of cotton. A field trial was conducted to determine the influence of environmental factors, viz. rainfall periods, temperature, sun shine hours and humidity on the development of disease. Bacterial blight disease was recorded with its appearance and subsequently at weekly interval till it prevailed on G. Cot. Hy.12 (Non Bt). The incidence of bacterial blight disease (BLB) was noticed during 28 to 49th standard week with the maximum disease intensity in third week of September (23.5% PDI). None of the abiotic factors had significant influence on bacterial blight disease progress and development.
In the present work, efforts are made to develop the input-output relationships for squeeze casting process by utilizing the fuzzy logic based approaches. Casting density in Squeeze casting is expressed as function of process parameters, such as time delay before pressurizing the metal, pressure durations, squeeze pressure, pouring temperature and die temperature. It is to be noted that, Mamdani based model and Takagi and Sugeno's model have been developed to model density in squeeze casting process. Manually constructed Mamdani based fuzzy logic controller and Takagi and Sugeno's based fuzzy logic controller have been used in approach 1 and approach 2 respectively. Training of FLC is carried with the help of five hundred input-output data set generated artificially through regression equations, obtained earlier by the same authors. The performance of the developed models was tested for both the linear and non-linear membership function distributions with the help of ten test cases. Moreover, the test data was collected by conducting the experiments and not used in training of FLCs. It is interesting to note that both approaches are capable to make accurate predictions. However, the performance of approach 2 with G bell shape membership function distribution is found to outperform approach 1 and other type of membership function distributions. The findings are useful to foundry-men, since it provides information on casting density in squeeze casting process for the different combination of process parameters without conducting any experiments.
Although premature infants are increasingly surviving the neonatal period, up to one-third develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Despite evidence that bacterial colonization of the neonatal respiratory tract by certain bacteria may be a risk factor in BPD development, little is known about the role these bacteria play. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of culture-independent molecular profiling methodologies to identify potential etiological agents in neonatal airway secretions. This study used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone sequence analyses to characterize bacterial species in endo-tracheal (ET) aspirates from eight intubated pre-term infants. A wide range of different bacteria was identified in the samples. Forty-seven T-RF band lengths were resolved in the sample set, with a range of 0–15 separate species in each patient. Clone sequence analyses confirmed the identity of individual species detected by T-RFLP. We speculate that the identification of known opportunistic pathogens including S. aureus, Enterobacter sp., Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonasaeruginosa and Streptococcus sp., within the airways of pre-term infants, might be causally related to the subsequent development of BPD. Further, we suggest that culture-independent techniques, such as T-RFLP, hold important potential for the characterization of neonatal conditions, such as BPD.
Estrous cycle is a repetitive phenomenon occurring during the reproductive life of a female dog. The duration of the canine estrous cycle is considerably longer than one in the most of the other animals and is broadly grouped into follicular phase (proestrus and estrus), luteal phase (diestrus) and non-seasonal anestrus. Dogs in the same stage of cycle can be inadvertently assigned to same group during routine safety and metabolic studies leading to possible erroneous interpretation of test-item related effects. This retrospective analysis was conducted by analyzing data of 86 female beagle dogs from control/placebo treated groups to correlate any possible effect of estrous stages with electrocardiography, clinical pathology and ovarian weight. Different estrous cycle stages of beagles were confirmed histologically by evaluating ovary, uterus, vagina and mammary glands. The incidence of beagles in diestrus was the highest, followed by anestrus, proestrus and estrus. No significant effect was noticed on heart rate, P–A, P–D, RR, QRS and QT intervals across different stages of estrous cycle. However, significantly higher PQ (PR) interval in dogs in proestrus stage was observed compared to dogs in anestrus and estrus. Marginally higher WBCs, neutrophils, lymphocytes, RBCs, hemoglobin, AST and lower hematocrit, lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides), ALP level was evident in estrous period. Relative ovary weight was significantly higher in dogs in diestrus stage. Considering these results, one may need to exercise caution while interpreting experimental data from female beagle dogs.