Conjugate heat transfer analysis is carried out in a cascade domain for a nozzle guide vane. The nozzle guide vane is internally cooled by jet impingement cooling, and the external surface is cooled by film cooling. A computational study was carried out with three different materials, having conductivity values of 0.0048, 0.2 and 1.1 W/m.K. Distribution of local surface temperature along the leading edge, pressure and suction surface is reported. The leading edge region showed the maximum increase in internal surface temperature as the conductivity increased among the different regions of the vane internal surface. However, the pressure and suction surfaces showed relatively less increase in the surface temperature distribution. In order to validate the computational result, the obtained temperature data were compared with experimentally obtained surface temperature data. The flow phenomena like jet lift-off and self-induced cross-flow affect the local temperature distribution differently in the three materials. For a constant mainstream and coolant flow, the surface temperature gradient is higher for the lower conductivity material, and the gradient decreases as conductivity increases. Hence, a material with higher conductivity is desired in a combined impingement and film cooled nozzle guide vane, to increase the durability of the vane.
Polycrystalline ferrites having the chemical formula Ni0.65−xZn0.35MgxFe2O4 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.2) were prepared by solid state reaction route in steps of x = 0.04. The effect of incorporation of diamagnetic divalent magnesium at expense of nickel on the structural properties of these ferrites has been studied. The proposed cation distribution was derived from theoretical X-ray diffraction intensity calculations. These intensity calculations were done by varying the concentration of magnesium ions over two sites in the lattice. For a certain amount of magnesium concentration, the calculated and observed X-ray diffraction intensities were found to be in good agreement. Site occupancy of divalent diamagnetic magnesium was established from this cation distribution. The octahedral environment facilitates magnesium to enter the B-site at about 95 % and the remaining 5 % occupy tetrahedral sites (A-sites). The movements of cations between tetrahedral and octahedral sites as a result of magnesium substitution were discussed in the view of structural parameters, such as tetrahedral and octahedral bond lengths, cation-cation and cation-anion distances, bond angles and hopping lengths, which were calculated using experimental lattice constants and oxygen parameters. All structural parameters showed slight deviations from ideal values. Among all magnesium substituted samples, the ones with x = 0.12 exhibited insignificant variation in view of structural properties. Dielectric measurements were conducted at a standard frequency of 1 kHz. Large values of the recorded dielectric constants displayed typical characteristics of bulk ferrites. Both dielectric constant and loss values showed mixed variations, attributed to the loss of zinc ions during the sintering process.
The present numerical investigation of Leading Edge (LE) Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV) is considered with five rows of impingement holes combined with five rows of film cooled for the secondary coolant flow path analysis. The coolant mass flow rate variations in all the LE rows of the film holes externally subjected to the hot main stream were obtained by making a three-dimensional computational analysis of NGV with a staggered array of film cooled rows. The experiments were carried out for the same NGV using Particle Image Velocimetry technique to determine the effused coolant jet exit velocity at the stagnation row of film holes as mentioned in reference [Kukutla PR, Prasad BVSSS. Secondary flow visualization on stagnation row of a combined impingement and film cooled high pressure gas turbine nozzle guide vane using PIV technique, J Visualization, 2017; DOI: 10.1007/s12650-017-0434-6]. In this paper, results are presented for three different mass flow rates ranges from 0.0037 kg/s to 0.0075 kg/s supplied at the Front Impingement Tube (FIT) plenum. And the mainstream velocity 6 m/s was maintained for all the three coolant mass flow rates. The secondary coolant flow distribution was performed from SH1 to SH5 row of film holes. Each row of a showerhead film hole exit coolant mass flow rate varied in proportion to the amount of coolant mass rates supplied at the FIT cooling channel. The corresponding minimum and maximum values and their film hole locations were altered. The same behaviour was continued for the coolant pressure drop and temperature rise from SH1 to SH5 row of film holes. Owing to the interaction between hot main stream and the coolant that effuses out of the film holes, occasional presence of hot gas ingestion was noticed for certain flow rates. This caused nonlinear distribution in mass flow, pressure drop and temperature rise. The minimum flow rate results estimate oxidation of NGV material near the film cooled hole. And the effect of hot gas ingestion on the ejected film cooled jet which would recommends effective oxidation resistant material which in turn leads to better durability of the NGV surface.
Radial growth predictions of rotating labyrinth seals are conventionally obtained from one-dimensional analytical models. However, these predictions quantitatively differ within themselves by about 5-500 %. Simulations using three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) are carried out in this paper for a typical labyrinth seal, subjected to high rotational speed and temperature, for a range of radius-to-length ratio of the rotor. Taking the predicted values by FEM as reference, four analytical models are assessed and their errors are quantified. These errors are found to be independent of rotational speed and temperature but significantly vary with the radius-to-length ratio of the rotor. Based on this finding, simple analytical models, together with correction factor charts, are suggested.
Co–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites with chemical composition Co0:5Zn0:5Fe2O4 were synthesized by sol-gel and combustion methods. The sol-gel method was carried out in two ways, i.e. based on chelating agents PVA and PEG of high and low molecular weights. In auto-combustion method, the ratio of citric acid to metal nitrate was taken as 1:1, while in sol-gel method the chelating agents were taken based on oxygen balance. All the three samples were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis for the identification of phase formation and ferritization temperature. The synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy without any thermal treatment. The measured lattice constants and observed characteristic IR absorption bands of the three samples are in good agreement with the reported values showing the formation of a cubic spinel structure. The crystallite sizes of all samples were determined using high intensity peaks and W-H plot. Size-Strain Plot method was also implemented since two of the samples showed low crystallite sizes. The least crystallite size (5.5 nm) was observed for the sample CZVP while the highest (23.8 nm) was observed for the sample CZCA. Cation distribution was proposed based on calculated and observed intensity ratios of selected planes from X ray diffraction data. All structural parameters were presented using experimental lattice constant and oxygen positional parameter, and they correlated with FT-IR results. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature to obtain the characteristic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, remanence, squareness ratio and Bohr magnetons. Among all, the sample synthesized via citric acid autocombustion method displayed a remarkably higher magnetization of 53 emu/g and the remaining two samples displayed low magnetization values owing to their smaller crystallite sizes.
Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out on an annular, straight flow, swirl-stabilized aero engine combustor. In this work, the effect of degree and direction of swirl at the inlet of combustion chamber is examined on the liner wall temperature and hot spots. This is carried out by experimentally measuring the liner outer wall temperature at discrete positions along the circumferential and axial directions of the combustor liner in the engine test facility. The RANS based turbulence modeling with reacting flow approach is used to simulate the flow domain. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is used to estimate the liner wall temperature using Ansys CFX frame work. The degree and direction of swirl at the inlet of combustion chamber is found to alter the velocity and temperature profiles inside the combustor and hence found to have a significant effect on the liner hot spots and its location. Hotspot with 43 % increase in temperature near the secondary zone is observed with the increase in swirl angle from 5° to 15° at the combustor inlet. The location of the hotspot is found to be dependent on the swirl direction.
This paper is focused on the study of two dimensional steady magnetohydrodynamics heat and mass transfer by laminar free convection from a radiative horizontal circular cylinder in a non-Darcy porous medium by taking into account of the Soret/Dufour effects. The boundary layer equations, which are parabolic in nature, are normalized into non-similar form and then solved numerically with the well-tested, efficient, implicit, stable Keller–Box finite-difference scheme. Numerical results are obtained for the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions, as well as the local skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number for several values of the parameters, namely the buoyancy ratio parameter, Prandtl number, Forchheimer number, magnetohydrodynamic body force parameter, Soret and Dufour numbers. The dependency of the thermophysical properties has been discussed on the parameters and shown graphically. Increasing the Forchheimer inertial drag parameter reduces velocity but elevates temperature and concentration. Increasing the Soret number and simultaneously reducing the Dufour number greatly boosts the local heat transfer rate at the cylinder surface. A comparative study of the previously published and present results in a limiting sense is made and an excellent agreement is found between the results.
This article aims to study theoretically the combined magneto hydrodynamic flows of casson viscoplastic nanofluid from a horizontal isothermal circular cylinder in non-Darcy porous medium. The impacts of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are consolidated and studied. The governing partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable non-similarity transformation and are solved numerically using Keller-Box finite difference technique. The numerical method is validated with previous published work and the results are found to be in excellent agreement. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, concentration along with skin friction coefficient, heat and mass transfer rate are discussed for various values of physical parameters. It is observed that velocity, heat and mass transfer rate are increased with increasing casson fluid parameter whereas temperature, concentration and skin friction are decreased. Velocity is reduced with increasing Forchheimer parameter whereas temperature and nano-particle concentration are both enhanced. An increase in magnetic parameter is seen to increase temperature and concentration whereas velocity, skin friction heat and mass transfer rate are decreased. The present model finds applications in electric-conductive nano-materials of potential use in aviation and different enterprises, energy systems and thermal enhancement of industrial flow processes.