This study examined the relation between word concreteness and word translatability.
Translatability was operationalized in terms of both lexical and semantic cross-transparency.
Two separate scales were used to measure the level of concreteness of 123 target English words
and their translatability into Chinese. The results of this study showed that word concreteness
and translatability are significantly correlated, and that word concreteness determines the
extent of semantic closeness between the translation of English and Chinese word pairs.
Concreteness might be a variable that influences how translatable a word is between English
and Chinese. However, this influence mainly applies to the semantic cross-transparency
between the two languages, not the lexical cross-transparency. A link was proposed between
the levels of translatability of a translation pair according to concreteness and associated
properties. The paper also discusses the implications of the findings for second language
learning and teaching, in particular the “translation effect” and teachers’ “codeswitching”
We studied effects of salt stress on proline accumulation and the activities of proline metabolic enzymes in reed, a salt-tolerant, cosmopolitan, aquatic grass. A concentration-dependent inhibition of plant growth occurred in the presence of NaCl, which was accompanied by high amounts of proline accumulation. Reed tolerance of salt stress reaches a limit at approximately 200 mm NaCl. Free proline content and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity both increased with salt stress treatment, while ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) activity appeared to be unaffected, suggesting that the glutamate pathway, rather than the ornithine pathway, plays a vital role in proline accumulation during osmotic regulation. The activity of the proline degrading enzyme, proline dehydrogenase (PDH), decreased under salt stress, indicating that proline catabolism may also be responsible for proline accumulation in response to salt stress. Furthermore, high salinity ≥250 mm NaCl, which stops growth of reed, decreases proline accumulation and P5CS, OAT, and PDH activities. This suggests that changes in enzyme activities of proline metabolism coupled with increased proline accumulation are involved in osmotic regulation of reed plants only when they are grown at salinities ≤200 mm NaCl.
Identifying important entities in software systems has many implications for effective resource allocation. Complex network research opens new opportunities for identifying important entities from software networks. However, the existing methods only focus on identifying important classes. Little work has been done on the identification of important packages. Moreover, the metrics they used to quantify the class importance are only designed for unweighted software networks and cannot fit in with the weighted software networks. To overcome these limitations, in this article, we introduce the weighted k-core decomposition method (Wk-core) to identify the important packages. First, we use a weighted software network to describe packages and their internal dependencies. Second, we use Wk-core to partition a software network into a layered structure. Then, the packages that are denoted by the nodes within the main core are the identified important packages. To evaluate our method, we use a variant of the susceptible–infectious–recovered model to examine the spreading influence of the nodes in six real weighted software networks. The results show that our method can well identify influential nodes, better than other four methods (i.e., original k-core decomposition, degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality methods). Furthermore, we demonstrate our method on two software networks and show that the important packages identified by our method are more meaningful from a software engineering perspective when compared with the other methods.
The similarity reduction and similarity solutions of a Boussinesq-like equation are obtained by means of Clarkson and Kruskal (CK) direct method. By using Lie symmetry method, we also obtain the similarity reduction and group invariant solutions of the model. Further, we compare the results obtained by the CK direct method and Lie symmetry method, and we demonstrate the connection of the two methods.
Motivated by ideas from two-step models and combining second-order TV regularization in the LLT model, we propose a coupling model for MR image reconstruction. By applying the variables splitting technique, the split Bregman iterative scheme, and the alternating minimization method twice, we can divide the proposed model into several subproblems only related to second-order PDEs so as to avoid solving a fourth-order PDE. The solution of every subproblem is based on generalized shrinkage formulas, the shrink operator or the diagonalization technique of the Fourier transform, and hence can be obtained very easily. By means of the Barzilai–Borwein step size selection scheme, an ADMM type algorithm is proposed to solve the equations underlying the proposed model. The results of numerical implementation demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.