The new alkaloids 7-,9-diangeloylplatynecine (1) and 8-episarracine N-oxide (2), were isolated and identified from the roots of Senecio macedonicus. Another one, 8-epineosarracine was detected by GC/MS analyses of the crude alkaloid mixture. The cytotoxicity and biological activity of the alkaloids were tested on normal murine spleen lymphocytes and P3U1 mouse myeloma.
The clastogenic effect of total dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts, four bioactive fractions and three individual constituents from Carthamus lanatus aerial parts were evaluated in mice by bone marrow chromosome aberration assay with mitomycin C as positive control. Significant differences in the percentage of aberrant mitosis of the extracts were observed. The dichloromethane extract exhibited a considerable clastogenic effect and the water extract a negligible one. Different types of chromosome aberrations and time-dependant effects for the active fractions and individual compounds were found.
Two flavonoid aglycons, eight flavonoid glycosides, chlorogenic acid and syringin were isolated from aerial parts of Carthamus lanatus. Isorhamnetin 3-O-β-ᴅ-glucoside and chlorogenic acid were found for the first time in the genus Carthamus and respectively, quercimeritrin, astragalin, kaempferol 3-O-β-ᴅ-sophoroside and syringin in the species. The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than the butanol fraction measured by the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrazylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the main constituent, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucoside, were evaluated.
The aerial parts of Carthamus lanatus (Asteraceae) afforded four new oxygenated bisabolane fucosides, 10-hydroperoxy-bisabola-2,11-diene 7-O-β-ᴅ-fucopyranoside, 11-hydroperoxy- bisabola-2,9-diene 7-O-β-ᴅ-fucopyranoside, 10-hydroxy-bisabola-2,11-diene 7-O-β-ᴅ-fucopyranoside and 11-hydroxy-bisabola-2,9-diene 7-O-β-ᴅ-fucopyranoside together with the known compounds α-bisabolol β-ᴅ-fucopyranoside, asperuloside, sitosterol 3-O-β-ᴅ-glucoside and stigmasterol 3-O-β-ᴅ-glucoside. Asperuloside appears to be the second representative of the iridoid monoterpene group found in the plant family Asteraceae, which until recently was considered to lack iridoids. The main constituent α-bisabolol fucoside exhibited noticeable antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.
Two new lignan glycosides of dibenzylbutyrolactol type (haplomarin) and arylnaphthalene type (haploborin) were isolated from the aerial parts of Haplophyllum suaveolens together with the known arylnaphthalene lignan glycoside arabelline and hydroxycoumarin glycoside xeroboside. So far arabelline is found only in H. buxbaumii. This is the first report of the isolation of xeroboside from Haplophyllum.
The anti-inflammatory activity of four total extracts, their fractions and two main constituents (α-bisabolol β-ᴅ-fucopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside) of Carthamus lanatus L. aerial parts, were assessed in vitro by determining the inhibitory effects on induced human neutrophils. The dichloromethane extract and its water-alcoholic part exhibited the most significant inhibitory effects.
Twelve steroidal alkaloids were isolated from four populations of Veratrum lobelianum Bernh. and Veratrum nigrum L. Full NMR data for veralosinine (1), and extensive 1H NMR data for veralosine (3) and teinemine (5) are presented here for the first time. (±)-15-O-(2- Methylbutyroyl)germine (10) is undescribed up to now. The antiproliferative activities of veranigrine, veralosinine, and neogermitrine have shown that they are a perspective for further studies.