Investigations were carried out on point-to-plane dielectric barrier discharges with two different gas gap lengths (d = 0 and 2 mm), energized with two different high voltage power supplies providing one an ac signal at 15 kHz and the other a pulsed signal with a same repetition rate. Correlations between the electrical properties and the behavior of the plasma in these different situations were established through ozone generation, and by the way O radicals net production, checking for this purpose that in our operating conditions gasheating influence remained minor. Using the representation ozone concentration vs. charge amount transferred through current pulses, the specific electrical and thus physical properties of pulsed surface discharges are put in light; in these discharges, compared to ac and pulsed volume discharges, current pulses exhibit, for a given charge per pulse, the highest amplitudes and the shortest durations.
Despite considerable research into boxing, surprisingly little is known concerning the fundamental physics of forces delivered in a boxing match. Most previous punch force estimates have been obtained from laboratory studies in which an experienced boxer struck an inanimate object. This paper presents the first direct measurement of punch force in professional boxing matches. Measurements were made using a proprietary system that records the force associated with punch impact. Twelve boxers wore boxing gloves incorporating the bestshot System TM in six professional boxing matches across five different weight classes. The force of each delivered punch was measured across all rounds of all bouts. Mean punch forces delivered ranged from 866.6 N (Super Middleweight) to 1149.2 N (Light Middleweight) across the fights and was not significantly correlated with boxers weight. In each of the three bouts where the outcome was determined by judges decision, the boxer delivering the greater cumulative force and the greater number of punches won unanimously. These measurements, the first direct measurement of punch force in professional boxing matches, are considerably less than those found in laboratory demonstrations, and likely reflect the dynamic nature of the ring. The ability to measure punch force directly may be beneficial in training, judging, and monitoring the health of boxers during competitive matches.