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  • Author: Chang-An Zhao x
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A self-pairing is a pairing computation where both inputs are the same group element. Self-pairings are used in some cryptographic schemes and protocols. In this paper, we show how to compute the Tate–Lichtenbaum pairing on a curve more efficiently than the general case. The speedup is obtained by using a simpler final exponentiation. We also discuss how to use this pairing in cryptographic applications.


Objective: To analysis and extract the features of acupuncture recipes for dysmenorrhea.

Methods: By searching the major Chinese and English databases, we included the clinical literature with defined point-based recipes and analyzed the feature of those.

Results: (1) the most frequently selected points for dysmenorrhea in order were: San Yin Jiao(SP6), Guan Yuan (RN4), Zhong Ji (CV3), Qi Hai (CV6), Ci Liao (BL32), Di Ji (SP8), Shen Shu (BL23). (2) the major characteristics of point selection was combination of local points and distant points which located on Ren meridian and spleen meridian. (3) the major treatment methods were normal acupuncture, then acupuncture combined with moxibustion or auricular therapy, for the latter, were especially stressed and confirmed by many studies.

Conclusion: The acupuncture recipes for dysmenorrhea were usually made by consideration of combining local and distant points, utilizing multiple methods especially auricular therapy.


C18H26ClN4O, orthorhombic, P212121 (no. 19), a = 5.3476(1) Å, b = 14.4068(2) Å, c = 22.3285(4) Å, V = 1720.23(5) Å3, Z = 4, R gt(F) = 0.0328, wR ref(F 2) = 0.0774, T = 100 K.


Steroid 5α-reductase type 2 deficiency (5α-RD2) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutations in the SRD5A2 gene. Its clinical features and pathogenesis in Chinese patients are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the clinical features and genetically analyze the SRD5A2 gene in three Chinese 5α-RD2 patients. The patients were characterized by ambiguous genitalia and spontaneous virilization without breast development at puberty. Elevated post-human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation T/DHT ratios were useful indicators of 5α-RD2 (with ratios of 20.4, 20.1, and 26.6 in the three patients, respectively). Two compound heterozygous mutations in the SRD5A2 gene were identified: p.G203S/p.R246Q in patients 1 and 2 and p.G203S/c.655delT in patient 3. The father and the mother of patients 1 and\xa02 were carriers of p.R246Q and p.G203S, respectively. p.G203S appears to be common in Chinese 5α-RD2 patients. Early genetic analysis should be performed in suspected patients to improve prognosis.