Diverting stoma is often performed in rectal cancer surgery for reducing the consequences of possible anastomotic failure. Closing of stoma follows in most cases after a few months. The aim of our study was to evaluate morbidity and mortality after diverting stoma closure and to identify risk factors for complications of this procedure.
Patients and methods
At our department, we have performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data for 260 patients with diverting stoma closure from 2003 to 2015. Age, stoma type, patient’s preoperative ASA score, surgical technique and time to stoma closure were investigated as factors which could influence the complication rate.
218 patients were eligible for investigation. Postoperative complications developed in 54 patients (24.8%). Most common complications were postoperative ileus (10%) and wound infection (5%). Four patients died (1.8%). There was no effect on complication rate regarding type of stoma, closing technique, patient’s ASA status and patient age. The only factor influencing the complication rate was the time to stoma closure. We found that patients which had the stoma closed prior to 8 months after primary surgery had lower overall complication rate (p<0. 05).
To reduce overall complication rate, our data suggest a shorter period than 8 months after primary surgery before closure of diverting stoma. As diverting stoma closure is not a simple operation, all strategies should be taken to reduce significant morbidity and mortality rate.
In the light of a high rate of distant recurrence and poor compliance of adjuvant chemotherapy in high risk rectal cancer patients the total neoadjuvant treatment was logical approach to gaining acceptance. We aimed to evaluate toxicity and efficiency of this treatment in patients with rectal cancer and high risk factors for local or distant recurrence.
Patients and methods
Patients with rectal cancer stage II and III and with at least one high risk factor: T4, presence of extramural vein invasion (EMVI), positive extramesorectal lymph nodes or mesorectal fascia (MRF) involvement were treated with four cycles of induction CAPOX/FOLFOX, followed by capecitabine-based radiochemotherapy (CRT) and two consolidation cycles of CAPOX/FOLFOX before the operation. Surgery was scheduled 8–10 weeks after completition of CRT.
From November 2016 to July 2018 66 patients were evaluable. All patients had stage III disease, 24 (36.4%) had T4 tumors, in 46 (69.7%) EMVI was present and in 47 (71.2%) MRF was involved. After induction chemotherapy, which was completed by 61 (92.4%) of patients, radiologic downstaging of T, N, stage, absence of EMVI or MRF involvement was observed in 42.4%, 62.1%, 36.4%, 69.7% and 68.2%, respectively. All patients completed radiation and 54 (81.8%) patients received both cycles of consolidation chemotherapy. Grade 3 adverse events of neoadjuvant treatment was observed in 4 (6%) patients. Five patients rejected surgery, 3 of them with radiologic complete clinical remissions. One patient did not have definitive surgery of primary tumor due to unexpected cardiac arrest few days after sigmoid colostomy formation. Among 60 operated patients pathological complete response rate was 23.3%, the rate of near complete response was 20% and in 96.7% radical resection was achieved. Pathological T, N and stage downstaging was 65%, 96.7% and 83.4%, respectively. Grade ≥ 3 perioperative complications were anastomotic leakage in 3, pelvic abscess in 1 and paralytic ileus in 2 patients. The rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients irradiated with 3D conformal technique was 12.1% while with IMRT and VMAT it was 37% (p < 0.05). Hypofractionation with larger dose per fraction and simultaneous integrated boost used in the latest two was the only factor associated with pCR.
Total neoadjuvant treatment of high risk rectal cancer is well tolerated and highly effective with excellent tumor and node regression rate and with low toxicity rate. Longer follow up will show if this strategy will improve distant disease control and survival.