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  • Author: Elina Savolainen x
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Abstract

Dynamic modeling and simulation software can be used to simulate the industrial processes such as papermaking in order to improve the efficiency of the process. A dynamic simulation model can be combined with an optimization method to maximize the advantages which simulation tools can offer. In this paper, we combine dynamic process simulation and optimization to see how it can benefit a papermaking process which was envisaged to consist of a TMP mill, stock preparation, short circulation, a paper machine, and a reel. The aim is to increase the efficiency and minimize the costs involved in papermaking.

Abstract

Background: The aim of the study was to describe automated immunoassays for autoantibodies to homocitrulline or citrulline containing telopeptides of type I and II collagen in various disease categories in an early arthritis series.

Methods: Serum samples were collected from 142 patients over 16 years of age with newly diagnosed inflammatory joint disease. All samples were analyzed with an automated inhibition chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) using four different peptide pairs, each consisting of a biotinylated antigen and an inhibiting peptide. Assays were performed with an IDS-iSYS analyzer. Autoantibodies binding to homocitrulline and citrulline containing C-telopeptides of type I (HTELO-I, TELO-I) and type II collagens (HTELO-II, TELO-II) were analyzed.

Results: The mean ratio of HTELO-I inhibition in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was 3.07 (95% CI 1.41–11.60), p=0.003, and in seropositive and seronegative undifferentiated arthritis (UA) 4.90 (1.85–14.49), p<0.001. The respective mean ratios in seropositive and seronegative RA and UA were in TELO-I 8.72 (3.68–58.01), p<0.001 and 3.13 (1.49–6.16), p=0.008, in HTELO-II 7.57 (3.18–56.60), p<0.001 and 2.97 (1.23–6.69), p=0.037, and in TELO-II 3.01 (1.30–9.51), p=0.002 and 3.64 (1.86–7.65), p=0.008. In reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and unspecified spondyloarthritis the inhibition levels were similar to those observed in seronegative RA or UA.

Conclusions: Autoantibodies binding to homocitrulline or citrulline containing telopeptides of type I and II collagen did not differ significantly. They were highest among patients with seropositive disease and they differentiated seropositive and seronegative arthritis.