Assessing the level and distribution of genetic diversity of rare tree species is essential for their management and the development of effective conservation strategies. Cupressus gigantea is a long-lived endemic cypress of the west Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the tallest tree in its genus. The current populations of this species are fragmented and highly disturbed. We used RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat amplification) markers to assess the genetic variation and population structure of this endangered cypress. The 15 RAPD primers used in this study amplified 108 reproducible bands, 49 (45.4%) of which were polymorphic, while the 12 ISSR primers amplified 94 bands, 65 (69.2%) of which were polymorphic. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) indicated that 49.7% and 38.3% of the variation was attributable to differences between populations for the RAPD and ISSR markers, respectively; relatively high compared to values reported for other conifer species. These estimates were also similar to Gst values obtained from Nei’s gene diversity analyses (RAPD = 0.41 and ISSR = 0.36), and suggest that there is a high degree of population differentiation in this narrowly-distributed conifer. The genetic structure of this species has probably been shaped by its long life cycle and climatic changes during the Quaternary. The high degree of population differentiation in this species highlights the need for additional conservation measures, including measures to protect of all of the remaining populations. The substantial similarities between the results of the RAPD and ISSR analyses of samples from the same individuals indicate that they can be interpreted with high levels of confidence.
Nontransferred direct current (dc) laminar plasma jets of pure argon were generated at atmospheric pressure, with a generator having an interelectrode insert. Associated with the experimental investigation, similarity theory was adopted to examine the arc voltage characteristics, thermal efficiency, and jet length change of the laminar plasma. Jet flow temperature and velocity were evaluated by various methods. The jet shows good stability, reproducibility, and regular flow field change as functions of generating parameters. Applications of laminar plasma jets for ZrO2 ceramics spray coating and remelt strengthening of metal surface were attempted. The results indicated favorite process efficiency and controllability of the laminar plasma heating.