A major line of research on blockchains is geared towards enhancing the privacy of transactions through anonymity using generic non-interactive proofs. However, there is a good cluster of application scenarios where complete anonymity is not desirable and accountability is in fact required. In this work, we utilize non-interactive proofs of knowledge of elliptic curve discrete logarithms to present membership and verifiable encryption proof, which offers plausible anonymity when combined with the regular signing process of the blockchain transactions. The proof system requires no trusted setup, both its communication and computation complexities are linear in the number of set members, and its security relies on the discrete logarithm assumption. As a use-case for this scenario, we present Mesh which is a blockchain-based framework for supply chain management using RFIDs. Finally, the confidentiality of the transacted information is realized using a lightweight key chaining mechanism implemented on RFIDs. We formally define and prove the main security features of the protocol, and report on experiments for evaluating the performance of the modified transactions for this system.
Bones adjust their structure to withstand the mechanical demands they experience. It is suggested that flow-derived shear stress may be the most significant and primary mediator of mechanical stimulation. In this study, we designed and fabricated a fluid flow cell culture system that can load shear stress onto cells cultured on 3D scaffolds. We evaluated the effect of different culture techniques, namely, (1) continuous perfusion fluid flow, (2) intermittent perfusion fluid flow, and (3) static condition, on the proliferation of osteoblasts seeded on partially deproteinized bones. The flow rate was set at 1 ml/min for all the cells cultured using flow perfusion and the experiment was conducted for 12 days. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated an increase in cell proliferation for scaffolds subjected to fluid shear stress. In addition, the long axes of these cells lengthened along the flowing fluid direction. Continuous perfusion significantly enhanced cell proliferation compared to either intermittent perfusion or static condition. All the results demonstrated that fluid shear stress is able to enhance the proliferation of cells and change the form of cells.
Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders, including acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, peripheral arterial occlusion, ischemic stroke, deep-vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics can reduce the risks of these clinical events. Especially, the blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor is a proven anticoagulant. Promoting blood circulation, using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), for the treatment of these diseases has been safely used for thousands of years in clinical practice. Therefore, highly safe and effective anticoagulant ingredients, including FXa inhibitors, could be found in TCM for activating the blood circulation. One FXa inhibitor, a pentacyclic triterpene (compound 1, betulinic acid) characterized by IR, MS and NMR analyses, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Lycopus lucidus by bioassay-directed fractionation. Compound 1 exhibited an inhibitory effect on FXa with IC50 25.05 μmol/L and reduced the thrombus weight in an animal model at 25-100 mg/kg. These results indicate that betulinic acid could be the potential for anticoagulant therapy.
Sodium alginate was provided with good processibility according to physical and chemical characterization of itself. Alginate scaffold has been used for preparation of soft or hard tissue engineering, but the structure of the scaffold needs to be improved for better performance for skin tissue engineering. In this study, highly porous alginate membrane was formed with ionic crosslinking. High molecular weight (Mw=3.0×105) alginate showed the best film-forming property. Therefore, the appropriate molecular weight should be selected for improving its performance. With freeze-drying technology and pre-freezing at -10°C, we have built the honeycomb materials (porosity=92.06%). Changing the pre-freezing temperature can regulate pore structure to some extent. With the increased dosage of sodium alginate, the porosity and the pore size of the materials were reduced, whereas tensile strength and elongation at break increased. Water absorption performance of the materials was good. The above studies lay a foundation for construction of skin tissue engineering scaffold.
Introduction: The functions and mechanisms of prion proteins (PrPC) are currently unknown, but most experts believe that deformed or pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc) originate from PrPC, and that there may be plural main sites for the conversion of normal PrPC into PrPSc. In order to better understand the mechanism of PrPC transformation to PrPSc, the most important step is to determine the replacement or substitution site.
Material and Methods: BALB/c mice were challenged with prion RML strain and from 90 days post-challenge (dpc) mice were sacrificed weekly until all of them had been at 160 dpc. The ultra-structure and pathological changes of the brain of experimental mice were observed and recorded by transmission electron microscopy.
Results: There were a large number of pathogen-like particles aggregated in the myelin sheath of the brain nerves, followed by delamination, hyperplasia, swelling, disintegration, phagocytic vacuolation, and other pathological lesions in the myelin sheath. The aggregated particles did not overflow from the myelin in unstained samples. The phenomenon of particle aggregation persisted all through the disease course, and was the earliest observed pathological change.
Conclusion: It was deduced that the myelin sheath and lipid rafts in brain nerves, including axons and dendrites, were the main sites for the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, and the PrPSc should be formed directly by the conversion of protein conformation without the involvement of nucleic acids.
The experiment system of pulse detonation engine is set up to investigate the acoustic signature of detonation acoustic. The research on detonation acoustic characteristic of pulse detonation engine in three kinds of working states, deflagration stage, detonation stage and external detonation stage, is carried out. Results from the test show that the maximal PImpact, PJet1, τ+ and τInterval are obtained in external detonation stage. In deflagration stage, the concentrate of PDE acoustic signal energy is obvious. The energy of impulsive rise of impact noise and jet noise is an important part of PDE acoustic in deflagration stage. In detonation stage, a concentration of energy distribution is appeared in low frequency, and the energy of medium-high frequency is decreased. In external detonation stage, energy distribution is more concentrated in low frequency. The value of η11/η5 can be used to detect the working state of pulse detonation engine. When η11/η5 is less than 5, pulse detonation engine is in deflagration stage, however, when η11/η5 is large than 5, pulse detonation engine is in detonation stage or external detonation stage.
The experiment system of pulse detonation engine is set up to investigate on influence of diameter on detonation acoustic characteristic. The research of detonation acoustic characteristic of pulse detonation engine for four different diameters in different angles is carried out. Results from the test show that as the PDE diameter increasing, there are increases in amplitudes of impact noise in all angles, and the growth rate of amplitude of impact noise in the 90° direction is generally greater than that in the 0° direction. The smaller PDE diameter is, the distance of most obvious directivity at 0° turning to most obvious directivity at 30° is shorter. When the distance is shorter, such as 200 mm, the duration of detonation acoustic is increasing with the increase of PDE diameter, however, when the distance is longer, such as 3000 mm, it is just the opposite. The maximum duration of detonation acoustic is appeared in 3000 mm under 30 mm PDE diameter which reaches to 1.44 ms.
The time error of detonation acoustic in process of detonation formation and propagation in a multi-cycle gas-liquid two-phase pulsed detonation engine is experimentally investigated. Results from the tests show that before the detonation wave escapes through the open-end of PDE tube, the maximum average arrival time error of detonation acoustic is achieved in the process of overdriven detonation. After detonation wave exists of PDE tube, arrival time error at 0 deg is greater than the other directivity angles in all distances and increases dramatically first and then almost stays at a certain value. The filling fraction has a major impact on the time error of detonation acoustic. With filling fraction increasing, there are increases in arrival time error and interval time error. Arrival time error with the highest filling fraction at 30 deg is much greater than other filling fraction. The convergent nozzle exhibits a marked suppression in the time error of detonation acoustic, where the maximum reductions of 62.02 percent and 56.13 percent are obtained in arrival time error and interval time error respectively.