Convenient techniques for measuring rates of bone turnover have been developed in recent years with the advent of biochemical markers of bone metabolism. One recent of these techniques is a collection method and quantitative enzyme immunoassay for free pyridinoline crosslinks in human sweat. The concentrations of pyridinoline crosslinks in 5-day sweat collections and first morning void and 24-hour urine collections from healthy subjects and subjects with established metabolic bone disorders were determined. T-scores were higher in the sweat system than in the urine system by up to 10-fold in postmenopausal subjects, women with hyperparathyroidism, and subjects with postmenopausal osteoporosis. For subjects with postmenopausal osteoporosis, receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis yielded areas under the curve of 0.699, 0.629, and 0.520 for sweat pyridinoline, first morning void urine pyridinoline, and 24 hour urine pyridinoline respectively. The areas under the curve of the sweat and first morning void urine measurements were significantly greater (p﹤0.05) than the 24-hour pyridinoline measurements. Healthy postmenopausal subjects and subjects with postmenopausal osteoporosis were monitored before and during estrogen replacement therapy or alendronate therapy. Sweat pyridinoline values declined by 49.0 ±12.4％ and 19.4 ±19.9％ for estrogen and alendronate subjects respectively. We conclude that this non-invasive technique is a sensitive and specific measure of bone resorption and is appropriate as an adjunct to techniques such as bone density and may also be useful in monitoring of response to anti-resorptive therapies.
A radiochemical method for producing 82Se sources with an ultra-low level of contamination of natural radionuclides (40K, decay products of 232Th and 238U) has been developed based on cation-exchange chromatographic purification with reverse removal of impurities. It includes chromatographic separation (purification), reduction, conditioning (which includes decantation, centrifugation, washing, grinding, and drying), and 82Se foil production. The conditioning stage, during which highly dispersed elemental selenium is obtained by the reduction of purified selenious acid (H2SeO3) with sulfur dioxide (SO2) represents the crucial step in the preparation of radiopure 82Se samples. The natural selenium (600 g) was first produced in this procedure in order to refine the method. The technique developed was then used to produce 2.5 kg of radiopure enriched selenium (82Se). The produced 82Se samples were wrapped in polyethylene (12 μm thick) and radionuclides present in the sample were analyzed with the BiPo-3 detector. The radiopurity of the plastic materials (chromatographic column material and polypropylene chemical vessels), which were used at all stages, was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radiopurity of the 82Se foils was checked by measurements with the BiPo-3 spectrometer, which confirmed the high purity of the final product. The measured contamination level for 208Tl was 8–54 μBq/kg, and for 214Bi the detection limit of 600 μBq/kg has been reached.