Catalysis by lipoamide dehydrogenase involves the concerted action of the flavin and a cystine residue. Peptides containing this cystine residue have been previously isolated from E. coli and now from pig heart. The sequences of amino acid residues reveal a high degree of homology indicating a strict conservation of the region around the active site cystine during the long evolutionary period between these two species. The peptide sequences suggest a likely conformation of the polypeptide chain in the region of the flavin as well as the forces involved in substrate and flavin binding.
This paper develops an analytical model to quantify the costs and distributional effects of various fiscal options for allocating the large rents created under proposed cap-and-trade programs to reduce domestic, energy-related CO2 emissions. The trade-off between cost effectiveness and distribution is striking. The welfare costs of different policies, accounting for linkages with the broader fiscal system, range from negative $6 billion/year to a positive $53 billion/year in 2020 (or from -$12 to almost $100 per ton of CO2 reductions). The least costly policy involves auctioning all allowances with revenues used to cut income taxes, while the most costly policies involve recycling revenues in lump-sum dividends or grandfathering emissions allowances. The least costly policy is regressive, however, while the dividend policy is progressive. Grandfathering permits is both costly and regressive. A distribution-neutral policy entails costs of $18 to $42 per ton.