Two heptapeptides have been prepared by Fmoc methodology using Wang resin as solid support. For attachment of the first amino acid, several coupling systems were evaluated, and DIC/DMAP system could give yields of >99% and low levels of racemization. The selection of scavenger combination to deprotect side chains revealed that H2O/p-cresol was good at scavenging trityl and 1,2-ethanedithiol was highly efficient for scavenging t-butyl. Through shortening the preactivation time to 5 min, the racemization which occurred during formation of amide bonds coupled by HBTU was minimized. The crude peptides were characterized by RP-HPLC and MS, and sequenced by MS/MS to acquire reliable amino acid sequence information.
Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major cause of congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death and cardiac transplantation. Aggregating evidence highlights the genetic origin of DCM. However, DCM is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, and the genetic components underlying DCM in most cases remain unknown.
Methods: The coding regions and splicing junction sites of the TBX20 gene were sequenced in 120 unrelated patients with idiopathic DCM. The available close relatives of the index patient carrying an identified mutation and 300 unrelated ethnically matched healthy individuals used as controls were genotyped for TBX20. The functional characteristics of the mutant TBX20 were assayed in contrast to its wild-type counterpart by using a dual-luciferase reporter assay system.
Results: A novel heterozygous TBX20 mutation, p.F256I, was identified in a family with DCM transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion, which co-segregated with DCM in the family with complete penetrance. The missense mutation was absent in 600 control chromosomes and the altered amino acid was completely conserved evolutionarily among various species. Functional assays revealed that the mutant TBX20 had significantly diminished transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the mutation markedly reduced the synergistic activation of TBX20 with NKX2-5 or GATA4.
Conclusions: This study links TBX20 loss-of-function mutation to idiopathic DCM in humans for the first time, providing novel insight into the molecular mechanism underpinning DCM.