We aimed to compare the Singh index with bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), body mass index (BMI) and femur geometry in the right proximal femur of osteoporotic women, using different statistical tests. Radiographs of each patient were assessed to determine the Singh index by five observers. The observers consisted of a consultant radiologist, physical therapist and anatomists who studied the series of radiographs. They were asked to apply the Singh index by comparing the trabecular bone pattern in the proximal right femur with the reference scale published by Singh et al. . This has a six point scale from grade VI to grade I. We evaluated 47 osteoporotic women in this study. The subjects’ mean age, weigth, and height were 63,21 ± 10,106, 66,72 ± 12.523, 154,94 ± 7,026 respectively. We found a significant relationship between the Singh index and BMD. The Singh index correlated significantly with hip axis length, femoral neck diamater and trochanteric width. And, BMD correlated significantly with femoral head and neck diameter, femoral neck cortex width, medial calcar femoral cortex width and femoral shaft cortex width. The evaluation of the Singh index grades in its self, there was a significant relation among them.
This study describes a concurrent occurrence of lower respiratory aspergillosis and pneumoconiosis in a turkey flock. From one flock of 1000 turkeys, 4 clinically affected turkeys were examined pathologically and microbiologically. Clinically affected turkeys showed anorexia, lethargy, drooping of the wing, vomiting, dyspnea and open-beak breathing, or sudden dead. Gross lesions were observed in the air sacs and lungs which presented white to yellowish granulomas of varying size. Microscopic there was multifocal granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. At the center of the granulomas, fungal hyphae were clearly highlighted in the lungs and air sacs by Gomori methenamie silver (GMS) staining. In the microbiological cultivation of the affected lungs and air sacs, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Furthermore, dark black dust accumulations were present in the cytoplasm of macrophages or interstitial tissue in the lungs and air sacs. There were also fibrosis and lymphohistiocytic cell infiltrations around the particles. Overall, this study could implicated that pneumoconiosis might be a predisposing factor in the development of respiratory aspergillosis in turkeys.