The objective of this research was to evaluate the antibody response to multiple doses of an inactivated mixed vaccine against Histophilus somni, Pasteurella multocida, and Mannheimia haemolytica, and to investigate the influence of age at time of vaccination in the field.
Material and Methods
Healthy female Holstein calves received the vaccine at the age of 5–12 days and 2, 3, or 4 weeks later in the first experiment or at 1, 2, or 3 weeks of age and 4 weeks later in the second. Blood samples were collected at each vaccination and 3 weeks after the booster dose. Based on the antibody titres after the vaccinations, calves were divided into positive and negative groups for each of the bacteria. Calves in the control group were vaccinated only once at the age of 19–26 days.
Antibody titres against H. somni and P. multocida were significantly increased by the booster. After the second vaccinations, the titres against each bacterium were higher than those of the control group, and the M. haemolytica-positive percentage in calves with high maternal antibody levels (MAL) exceeded that in calves with low MAL. In the first experiment, a majority of the M. haemolytica-positive calves tended to have received the primary dose at seven days of age or older.
A booster dose of the inactivated bacterial vaccine in young Holstein calves increased antibody production and overcame the maternal antibodies. Calves should be vaccinated first at seven days of age or older.
The characteristics of immune factors in somatic cells from lactating dairy cows and their association with commensal bacteria in normal milk have not been clarified. This study investigated the relationship between the pathogenic bacteria in milk and somatic cell immune factors in healthy lactating cows.
Material and Methods
In total 44 healthy Holstein cows were studied on one farm. Milk samples were collected aseptically using a cannula and these samples were cultured for detection of bacteria and analysis of mRNA of immune factors expressed by somatic cells. Cows were divided into two groups based on the microbial status of their milk samples: 12 cows showed bacteria in cultures (positive group), and the other 32 cows did not (negative group).
The mRNA levels of IL-6, lactotransferrin, and cathelicidin expressed by somatic cells after milking decreased significantly compared to those before milking in both groups (P < 0.05). There were significantly lower mRNA levels of IL-6 and cathelicidin in the positive group compared to those in the negative group before milking.
These results suggest that mRNA levels of IL-6 and cathelicidin expressed by the somatic cells may be affected by the presence of bacteria in healthy lactating dairy cows.
The expressions of cytokines mRNA, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin- 17A (IL-17A) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), their master regulatory transcription factors, and signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT) stimulated in vitro with Pasteurella (P.) multocida soluble antigen were examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Holstein calves. The healthy Holstein calves were divided into three groups; 2 weeks old (2W Group, N=8), 6 weeks old (6W Group, N=8), and 10 weeks old (10W Group, N=8). PBMC were stimulated in vitro by soluble antigen of P. multocida. There were significantly lower expressions of IFN-γ, IL-4, and STAT-6 mRNA of PBMC stimulated with P. multocida soluble antigen in the 2W Group compared to that in the 10W Group. Expression of IL-17A and IFN-γ in PBMC stimulated with P. multocida soluble antigen were significantly higher compared with the PBMC without stimulation in the 6W groups. The results of the present study demonstrated that 2W old calves had decreased cytokine expression of PBMC when in vitro stimulated with P. multocida soluble antigen in vitro.
IFN-τ is a type I interferon, and it is known to be non-virus inducible in ruminants. IFN-τ reduced syncytium formation by PBMC obtained from BLV infected cattle in vitro. In order to clarify the effects of IFN-τ on cellular immune function in Japanese Black (JB) cattle with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, immune related factors of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were analyzed using IFN-τ as a stimulator. Thirty-two JB cattle were used in this investigation, and these cattle were divided into three groups: cattle with enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) (EBL Group, N=7), clinically healthy cattle with BLV infection (Carrier Group, N=13), and clinically healthy cattle without BLV infection (non-Carrier Group, N=12). A number of mRNA expressions of interleukin-12 and interferon (IFN)-as immune cell activating cytokines, perforin and granulysin as cytotoxic factors, and myxovirus resistance protein (MX)-1 and MX-2 as anti-virus factors of PBMC were analyzed after culturing cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or IFN-τ. The basal mRNA levels of perforin and granulysin in the Carrier Group were significantly higher than those in the non-Carrier Group. Also, significantly higher basal mRNA levels of MX-1 and MX-2 in the EBL Group were detected compared with the non-Carrier Group. The mRNA expressions of perforin and granulysin in PBMC stimulated with PHA were higher in the Carrier Group than those in the non-Carrier Group. There were significantly higher mRNA levels of MX-1 and MX-2 in PBMC stimulated with IFN-τ in the EBL Group compared with those in the non-Carrier Group. These results suggest an enhanced sensitivity of anti-virus reaction in PBMC by IFN-τ treatment in JB cattle with EBL.