For centuries, the study of metaphor and metonymy was primarily the province of rhetoricians. Although scholars developed a number of variations on the theme, the prevailing perspectives, i.e. that these tropes are stylistic devices used primarily for literary purposes and result from some kind of transfer of meaning between similar entities, remained largely unchanged from Aristotle until the mid twentieth century. Aspects of this long tradition still exist in current accounts that continue to argue that metaphoric meaning is in some way deviant, involves transference, and should be analyzed on a word by word basis. In the last 50 years linguists, such as Lakoff and Sperber & Wilson, have joined philosophers, such as Black and Grice, in the debate. The result has been a sharp increase in interest in non-literal language and a number of major innovations in metaphor theory. Metaphor and metonymy are now understood to be ubiquitous aspects of language, not simply fringe elements. The study of metaphor and metonymy have provided a major source of evidence for Cognitive Linguists to argue against the position that a sharp divide exists between semantics and pragmatics. Mounting empirical data from psychology, especially work by Gibbs, has led many to question the sharp boundary between literal and metaphorical meaning. While distinct perspectives remain among contemporary metaphor theorists, very recent developments in relevance theory and cognitive semantics also show intriguing areas of convergence.
Polyserase-1/TMPRSS9 and its alternative transcripts, serase-1B and serase-2B, are novel type II transmembrane serine proteases that may regulate physiological and pathological phenomena on the cell surface. To understand the mechanisms of gene expression and regulation of these transcripts, we cloned and characterized the 5′ promoter region of the mouse polyserase-1 (mpolyserase-1) gene. Using 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we located the transcription initiation site 272 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation site. Luciferase reporter gene analysis revealed that the region from +186 to +272 bp in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR), containing the GATA motif (AGATAA), glucocorticoid responsible element (TGTTCT), and E-box sequence (CAGGTG), is required for maximal promoter activity. Mutations introduced into the E-box sequence but not elsewhere in the promoter region caused a selective decrease in transcriptional activity. Furthermore, a DNA probe (+229 to +255 bp) containing the E-box sequence formed a single nuclear protein complex in a sequence-specific manner. These data suggest that the expression of mpolyserase-1 and its transcript variants is positively regulated by the E-box in its 5′-UTR, which might be responsible for the binding of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors involved in the development of various organelles.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) lenses are used for infrared radiation (IR) systems, such as radiation thermometers to transmit the IR of the 10 μm region. High IR transmittance and low visible ray (VR) transmittance are necessary for IR system lenses. This experimental investigation of thin-wall injection molding was conducted using 0.5 mm cavity thickness with a disk shape, finished to a mirror-like surface. As factors affecting transmittance, we evaluated the thickness, surface roughness, crystallinity, internal structure, and molecular chain orientation of molded parts, which were produced using four HDPE melt flow rates (MFRs). The changed molding conditions were mold temperature and holding pressure. Results showed that the thin-molded parts had higher IR transmittance. The thin-molded part was obtained with the smallest MFR of 5. Furthermore, the VR transmittance decreased when the molecular chain orientation in the molded parts was small and the crystallinity was high. The small orientation and high crystallinity were obtained simultaneously with the largest MFR of 42. Therefore, it was impossible to obtain high IR transmittance and low VR transmittance simultaneously by a change of MFR. This study confirmed that surface roughness and crystallinity do not affect transmittance.