Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is a multifactorial disease with unknown association to the development and function of peripheral lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to elucidate a connection between the periodontal condition in 10 patients with AgP and their potential state of immunodeficiency. Based on full periodontal examination and radiographs, 10 females (ages 29.8±8.62 years) with established diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis were included in this study. Flow cytometric analysis revealed substantial reduction of switched memory B cells (IgM–, IgD–, CD27+) in 9 of 10 patients, whereas numbers of naïve, IgM+ memory, transitional, and activated B cells were normal. Serum levels of IgM, IgG, IgA, and subclasses were normal. In vitro differentiation of B cells showed normal amounts of secreted IgG and IgA at day 5 of culture. Our results indicate that lowered numbers of switched memory B cells – typically referred to the state of common variable immunodeficiency type I (Freiburg classification) – are unlikely to influence immunoglobulin serum levels or clinical anamnesis of our patients with AgP. Lipopolysaccharide-induced elevated levels of IL-1β and IL-8 and lowering of IL-4 are more likely to trigger a pro-inflammatory circle that attracts lymphocytes to local pockets of aggressive periodontitis.
Studies on children’s humor mainly focus on short-term effects of sense of humor and laughter. There is also evidence that children possess the predisposition to communicate humorously, labeled “Humor Orientation” (HO). All children possess some level of HO, but highly humor oriented children enact humor successfully and frequently, perceive situations more often as funny, and perform humorously across different interactions than low humor oriented children. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a short-form of the Child Humor Orientation Scale (), a questionnaire assessing HO in children, and to analyze its relations to well-being.
After forward-backward-translation procedure, the CHO-Scale was validated in a sample of parents of 296 pre-school children (3–6 years). The CHO-Scale was shortened to 10 items on the basis of factor loadings and content-related aspects.
Exploratory factor analysis of the CHO-10 revealed a two-factor solution. Reliability and Validity of the main score and the subscales are acceptable. Children with high HO show higher social competencies, emotion knowledge, quality of life, and lower trait anxiety.
The CHO-10 Scale is suitable as a valid, reliable and economic measure of Child Humor Orientation.