This chapter reviews fractional derivative models used to quantify anomalous transport of various geological materials (such as water, solutes, and sediment) in complex natural media, presents recent progress of fractional derivative diffusion equations in several application fields, and finally identifies potential challenges for fractional engines for future studies.
Background: Several studies have examined the association between G308A polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α gene and acute or chronic pancreatitis, but the results are still controversial.
Objective: Assess whether a relationship exists between G308A polymorphism of TNF-α gene and acute or chronic pancreatitis using meta-analysis.
Methods: Relevant studies were identified from the electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Current Contents. This meta-analysis included 10 case-control studies, where 1,253 acute or chronic pancreatitis cases and 1,269 controls were included.
Results: The combined results based on all studies showed no relationship between the 308GA polymorphism of TNF-α gene and pancreatitis. When stratifying by types of disease, results were similar for both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Comparing severe with mild acute pancreatitis, we found no statistical association. When stratifying for race, results were similar among Asians and Caucasians.
Conclusion: There was no association between the 308GA polymorphism of TNF-α gene and acute or chronic pancreatitis.
The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the accumulation of dehydrins in leaves of Tibetan hulless barley seedlings under water stress were investigated. The results indicated that SA decreased the levels of the four dehydrin-like proteins induced by water stress. The concentrations of these dehydrin-like proteins increased under water stress. However, their levels in SA-pretreated seedlings were always lower than in those receiving only water stress. Our results also indicated that the levels of dehydrin-like proteins decreased as the SA concentration increased. In SA-pretreated seedlings, electrolyte leakage, MDA and H2O2 content were rather higher than in seedlings receiving only water stress. By these results, we suggest that lower levels of dehydrin-like proteins in seedlings with SA treatment may be due to the greater accumulation of H2O2 induced by SA, which causes more oxidative injury under water stress.
Gum-based food thickeners are widely used to care for patients with dysphagia in Korea. In this study, the flow properties of commercially available gum-based food thickeners marketed in Korea were determined as a function of temperature. The flow properties of thickeners were determined based on the rheological parameters of the power law and Casson models. Changes in shear stress with the rate of shear (1-100 s-1) at different temperatures (5, 20, 35, and 50 oC) were independent of the type of thickener. All thickeners had high shear-thinning behavior (n=0.08-0.18) with yield stress at the different temperatures tested. In general, apparent viscosity (na,50) values progressively decreased with an increase in temperature. In addition, the consistency index (K) and Casson yield stress (σoc) values did not change much upon an increase in temperature from 5 to 35 oC, except for sample B. In the temperature range of 5-50 oC, the thickeners followed an Arrhenius temperature relationship with a high determination coefficient (R2=0.93-0.97): activation energies (Ea) for the flow of thickeners were in the range of 2.44 - 10.7 kJ/mol. Rheological parameters demonstrated considerable differences in flow behavior between the different gum-based food thickeners, indicating that their flow properties are related to the type of thickener and the flow properties of gum.
Jiangsu Province has achieved spectacular economic growth in the past decades, but also has been faced with increasing environmental pressure. The paper draws on the decoupling framework proposed by Tapio to examine the relationship between Industrial Growth and environmental pollution for the period between 2006 and 2015 in Jiangsu Province. The data used include gross industrial output, industrial wastewater, industrial sulfur dioxide and solid waste. The results show that Jiangsu’s Industrial Growth is not consistently decoupled from environmental pressure. In particular, the decoupling relationship between Industrial Growth and solid waste is markedly inconsistent. The study finds that Industrial Growth has been strongly decoupled from both industrial wastewater and industrial sulfur dioxide for the period. To achieve sustained growth in the industrial sector for Jiangsu Province, the paper concludes with the following recommendations: Spreading the application of cleaner production technologies; Optimizing industrial structure and distribution, promoting the use of third-party environmental services; Implementing and updating environmental protection policies.
Objective To clone, express and purify C12orf49 recombinant protein. To prepare rabbit anti-C12orf49 protein polyclonal antibody in order to further elucidate its biological function.
Methods PCR was used to amplify the gene C12orf49 in vitro. pET-32a (+)-C12orf49, the recombinant protein prokaryotic expression vector, was transformed into E. coli. IPTG was used as the inductive agent to obtain C12orf49 recombinant protein, and the recombinant protein was analyzed with sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Specific polyclonal antibody was derived from rabbits that immunized by recombinant protein. ELISA and Western blot were used to test its titer and specificity, respectively. MTT cell proliferation experiment was carried out to observe effect of the protein on proliferation of HepG2 cells.
Results The C12orf49 recombinant protein was expressed in a large quantity. Data of ELISA indicated that the titer of polyclonal antibody was higher than 1:1 280 000. And the antibody also had a good specificity, confirmed by Western blot. C12orf49 recombinant protein may had a advanced effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells.
Conclusions Using C12orf49 recombinant protein, we can obtain the polyclonal antibody with great titer and good specificity. Human novel gene C12orf49 encoded protein could promote the proliferation of HepG2 cells.