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  • Author: Huseyin Kayadibi x
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We aimed to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on renal functions in patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease.

Materials and methods

The study was conducted in Ramadan month which was between June and July. Patients were evaluated before Ramadan, the week immediately following the end of the Ramadan, and 3 and 6 months after Ramadan.


Twenty-four fasting (mean age of 68 ± 13 years) and 55 non-fasting individuals (mean age of 69 ± 9 years) were included in this study. There was no statistically significant difference for creatinine levels in the first week after Ramadan in both groups compared to levels before Ramadan (p = 0.070, p = 0.470, respectively). The groups were compared according to the criteria of deterioration in renal function (reduction of 25% in GFR and 30% increase in serum creatinine levels). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups according to these two criteria (p = 0.452, p = 0.660, respectively). In univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of diabetes mellitus and proteinuria were found to be independent risk determinants of renal dysfunction.


Patients with diabetes mellitus and prominent proteinuria may constitute critical patient groups for renal function deterioration during Ramadan fasting.



This study aimed to determine significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis with different FIB-4 cut-off points, and the need for liver biopsy (LB) by optimizing the initially established cut-off points of 1.45 and 3.25.

Materials and methods:

The study included 201 patients monoinfected with chronic HBV. METAVIR classification was used to determine the stage of fibrosis. ROC analysis and the Youden index were performed to define the optimum cut-off points.


A FIB-4 cut-off point of 1.45 and 1.62 generated Youden indexes of 0.51 and 0.55, the accuracy of 78.6% and 81.1% for significant liver fibrosis, respectively. The FIB-4 cut-off was set at 2.40 and 3.25 Youden indexes were 0.46 and 0.16, accuracies were 79.6% and 69.7% for significant liver fibrosis, respectively. A cut-off point of 1.45 and 1.62 for FIB-4 generated Youden indexes of 0.62 and 0.66, the accuracies of 81.6% and 84.1% for cirrhosis, while the FIB-4 cut-off point of 2.40 and 3.25 generated Youden indexes of 0.59 and 0.22, with the accuracies of 90% and 84.1% for cirrhosis, respectively.


The FIB-4 cut-off points of 1.62 and 2.40 have higher accuracy and may decrease the need for LB 12% more than the initially established ones in HBV monoinfected patients.



The severity of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) is the most important determinant of the irreversible progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prolidase is the key enzyme in collagen turnover and is associated with an extracellular matrix increase. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the presence and degree of IFTA and serum prolidase enzyme activity (SPEA) in patients undergoing a renal biopsy.


This cross-sectional study included 56 patients who underwent a renal biopsy (30 males; mean age 45.3 ± 16.8 years) and also 54 healthy volunteers (21 males; mean age 42.7 ± 8.2 years). IFTA scoring was performed on the basis of percentage of IFTA presence in renal biopsy tissues (1=<10%; 2=10–24%; 3=25–50%; 4=>50%). SPEA was measured by spectrophotometric method.


The proteinuria and SPEA levels of the patients were significantly higher than the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). SPEA decreased significantly when the IFTA score increased (p<0.002). In the correlation analysis, the IFTA score was negatively correlated with SPEA (rs=−0.461, p<0.001), and positively correlated with proteinuria (rs=0.274, p=0.041).


These findings suggest that increased collagen turnover decreases over time concerning the progression of renal fibrosis. Monitoring of SPEA level may useful as a biomarker for early determination of CKD progression and severity.