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  • Author: Inas Mazen x
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Background: KF is characterized by heterogeneity in the degree of expressed phenotypes.

Objective: to ascertain the variable phenotypes of Klinefelter syndrome in children. Subjects and Methods: We present eight klinefelter patients, their age ranged from 2 to 11 years (mean 6.63). Subjects were meticulously examined for evidence of dysmorphology. Intelligence quotient was estimated.

Results: Cytogenetic analysis revealed 47,XXY karyotype in all patients. The following was detected: Dysmorphism in 5/8, micropenis in 4/8, the left testis was nonpalpable in 4/8, short stature in 4/8, congenital cardiac malformations in 4/8, seizures in 4/8, mental retardation in 5/8, growth hormone deficiency in 2/8, hypothyroidism and delayed bone age in 1/8.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated a variable association of mental retardation, dysmorphism, micropenis, undescended testis, seizures, congenital heart defects, and growth hormone deficiency among Egyptian patients with Klinefelter syndrome. This merits further study to facilitate earlier diagnosis and better management to improve their quality of life.


Objective: To study the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in five Egyptian patients with severe rickets and the clinical features of hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets, including hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, total alopecia, and elevated serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

Study design: We amplified and sequenced DNA samples from blood from the patients, their parents, and available family members.

Results: DNA sequence analyses of the VDR gene showed three novel mutations (p.Y295X, p.R343C, and p.R391H) and a previously reported one (p.R30X) in four patients, whereas no mutation was found in one patient. Mutations cosegregated perfectly with affected individuals in all families, and did not exist in unaffected family members or 200 ethnically matched chromosomes.

Conclusion: Three novel deleterious mutations in the VDR ligand-binding domain were identified, which are expected to render the VDR nonfunctional. Successful treatment with frequent high doses of oral calcium and calcidol was evident in all patients; however, hair growth occurred only in one patient.



Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is a common autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the CYP21A2 gene. We aimed to determine the prevalence of the most commonly reported mutations among 21-OHD Egyptian patients and correlate genotype with phenotype.


Molecular analysis of the CYP21A2 gene was performed for the detection of the six most common point mutations (p.P30L, p.I172N, p.V281L, p.Q318X, the splice site mutation Int2 [IVS2–13A/C>G], and the cluster of three mutations [p.I236N, p.V237E, and p.M239K] designed as CL6). Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed on 47 unrelated Egyptian 21α-OH deficiency patients and their available parents to detect the presence of the six most common point mutations.


Screening for the six most common point mutations in CYP21A2 gene, revealed mutations in 87.2% (82/94) of the studied alleles corresponding to 47 Egyptian patients. The most common mutation among the studied cases was IVS2-13C/A>G that was found to be presented in a frequency of 46.8% (44/94). The genotype/phenotype correlations related to null, A, and B groups were with PPV of 100, 55.5, and 83.3%, respectively.


The described method diagnosed CAH in 80.8% of the studied patients. Good correlation between genotype and phenotype in salt wasting and simple virilizing forms is determined, whereas little concordance is seen in nonclassical one. Furthermore, studying the carrier frequency of 21-OHD among the normal population is of great importance.